Top of appendix Contents Bibliography B.1. International Phonetic Alphabet symbols B.2. Phonetic terms

Appendix B
Phonetic Symbols and Terms

B.1. International Phonetic Alphabet symbols

Symbol Description Example
ɑ open back unrounded vowel mann ‘man’
ɑː long open back unrounded vowel ān ‘one’
æ open-mid to open front unrounded vowel bæc ‘back’
æː long open-mid to open front unrounded vowel rǣdan ‘read’
ʌ open-mid back unrounded vowel Modern English but
b voiced bilabial stopbōc ‘book’
β voiced bilabial spirant  
ç voiceless palatal spirant niht ‘night’
d voiced dental/alveolar stop dēofol ‘devil’
ʤ voiced postalveolar affricate enġel ‘angel’
ð voiced dental spirant feðer ‘wing’
e close-mid front unrounded vowel etan ‘eat’
long close-mid front unrounded vowel hēr ‘here’
ə mid central unrounded vowel Modern English China
ɛ open-mid front unrounded vowel Modern English set
f voiceless labiodental spirant feorr ‘far’
ɡ voiced velar stop gōd ‘good’
ɣ voiced velar spirant āgan ‘own’
h voiceless glottal spirant hand ‘hand’
i close front unrounded vowel sittan ‘sit’
long close front unrounded vowel bītan ‘bite’
ɪ close to close-mid front unrounded vowel iernan ‘run’
ɪː long close to close-mid front unrounded vowel hīeran ‘hear’
j voiced palatal approximant ġē ‘you’
k voiceless velar stop camb ‘comb’
l alveolar lateral approximant lamb ‘lamb’
m bilabial nasal mann ‘man’
n dental/alveolar nasal nū ‘now’
ŋ velar nasal singan ‘sing’
o close-mid back rounded vowel open ‘open’
long close-mid back rounded vowel ōr ‘origin’
p voiceless bilabial stop prēost ‘priest’
r alveolar trill rǣdan ‘read’
s voiceless alveolar spirant sittan ‘sit’
ʃ voiceless postalveolar spirant scip ‘ship’
t voiceless dental/alveolar stop twēġen ‘two’
ʧ voiceless postalveolar affricate ċild ‘child’
θ voiceless dental spirant þēaw ‘custom’
u close back rounded vowel burg ‘stronghold’
long close back rounded vowel būgan ‘bow’
ʊ close to close-mid back rounded vowel Modern English put
v voiced labiodental spirant heofon ‘heaven’
w voiced labio-velar approximant weall ‘wall’
x voiceless velar spirant beorht ‘bright’
y close front rounded vowel yfel ‘evil’
long close front rounded vowel brȳd ‘bride’
z voiced alveolar spirant rīsan ‘rise’

B.2. Phonetic terms

back vowel. A vowel pronounced toward the back of the mouth, e.g. [ɑou].
front vowel. A vowel pronounced toward the front of the mouth, e.g. [ieæ].
high vowel. A vowel pronounced with the tongue raised, e.g. [iuy].
liquid. A term applied to the consonants [l] and [r].
low vowel. A vowel pronounced with the tongue and jaw lowered, e.g. [æɑ].
nasal. A consonant pronounced by passing air through the nose: [m] and [n].
rounded vowel. A vowel pronounced with the lips rounded, e.g. [uoy].
spirant. A consonant produced by passing air through a narrow opening in the mouth, e.g. [fsθvz]; also called a fricative.
stop. A consonant produced by momentarily stopping the breath, e.g. [bgkp]; also called a plosive.
unvoiced. Pronounced while the vocal chords are not vibrating, e.g. [fhkpst].
voiced. Pronounced while the vocal chords are vibrating. A vowel is always voiced; so are the consonants [bdgvz].