from Volume 27, Number 2
INNER-CITY, AFRICAN-AMERICAN MALES EXHIBIT "BAD ATTITUDES" TOWARD WORK?
Jill Littrell and Elizabeth Beck
Many potential employers of inner-city African-American men believe
that African-American men have poor work attitudes. The investigations
reported here attempted to evaluate the veridicality of this assumption.
The responses of African-American men who utilize a soup-kitchen were
compared with college men on a variety of attitude measures, as well
as on their reactions to a scenario about a man who worked for an unfair
boss and quit in response. Generally, little support for the view that
inner-city, African-American men have a predilection to presume prejudice
or unfairness, or to render a favorable evaluation of quitting under
unfair conditions, was found.
INVISIBLE HAND GUIDED BY A BLIND EYE: CONFRONTING A FLAW IN ECONOMIC
Economics is alone among the social science disciplines in failing
to have a sound theory to explain behaviors when people do not act according
to their self-interest, that is, with compassion. This has resulted
in a fundamental flaw in economic thought. As economies have grown in
scale and complexity, there has been a corresponding distancing between
consumers and producers. This flaw has revealed itself through a lack
of economic structures which bridge this distance, restore a level of
intimacy within the economic interaction, and hence facilitate the expression
AND ECONOMIC OUTCOMES AFTER WELFARE
Thomas P. Vartanian and Justine M. McNamara
Using data from the 1969 to 1993 Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this
article examines a number of models to determine the characteristics
of AFDC recipients who fare well economically after they initially leave
the welfare system. The study includes analyses of income levels, time
spent employed and not employed, and time spent below the poverty line.
Hypotheses regarding state welfare payments, area economic conditions,
human capital and time spent receiving welfare are examined. The findings
indicate that area employment conditions and the ability to quickly
find work greatly affect the likelihood of faring well economically
after welfare. We found that time spent receiving welfare had some small
negative effects on post-welfare economic outcomes. However, former
welfare recipients living in states with more generous welfare payments
are as likely to work, to not use welfare, and are generally as well
off as those living in states with less generous welfare payments. These
results indicate that high welfare benefit levels may not be a disincentive
to work. The findings also indicate that women who have little job experience,
who lack education, and who have many or more children after AFDC, fare
economically worse than the others.
SPATIAL SHIFT IN THE GROWTH OF POVERTY AMONG FAMILIES HEADED BY EMPLOYED
W. Richard Goe & Anisa Rhea
The number of working poor families in the United States increased substantially
during the 1979-89 period. This increase was found to disproportionately
consist of families headed by employed females. The growth in poverty
among families headed by employed females during this period was found
to be nonstructural in nature and inequitably distributed across the
labor markets in the U.S. It was found that at the onset of the 1980s,
high rates of poverty among families headed by employed females were
predominately concentrated in labor market areas in the South. Over
the 1980s, the highest increases in poverty rates among such families
were found to be concentrated in labor market areas in the Midwest and
Rocky Mountain regions, rather than the South. Further, declines in
poverty rates among families headed by employed females were found to
be concentrated in labor market areas located on the east and west coasts.
BUREAUCRACIES, CONFLICTED WORK: DILEMMAS IN CASE MANAGEMENT FOR HOMELESS
PEOPLE WITH MENTAL ILLNESS
Linda E. Francis
This ethnographic study finds a case management agency torn between
the rules of two conflicting bureaucracies. Funded by a federal grant,
the agency is administered by the county, and the regulations of the
two systems turn out to be incompatible. This conflict creates dilemmas
in providing services to clients: meeting eligibility criteria for services
from the federal grant meant the clients did not meet the eligibility
criteria for many County services. Agency staff reacted to this dilemma
by bending rules, finding loopholes, and investing extra time and emotional
labor in each client. The role-conflict engendered by bureaucratic disjunction
creates frustration, resentment and burnout within the agency.
AND GENDER VARIATIONS IN THE PROCESS SHAPING EARNINGS' POTENTIAL: THE
CONSEQUENCES OF POVERTY IN EARLY ADULTHOOD
C. ANDRE MIZELL
investigates the effects of poverty in early adulthood on future earnings.
While social scientists are beginning to amass a considerable literature
on the effects of poverty on outcomes for children, few have investigated
the damage that impoverishment may do in early adulthood when individuals
are in the midst of completing education and planning careers. The findings
in this study indicate that poverty does dampen earnings' potential.
However, individual characteristics (e.g., aspirations, esteem and ability)
and structural location (e.g., educational attainment, occupational
status and job tenure) may assuage the otherwise negative effects of
poverty. Other findings reveal that the process shaping earnings is
very similar for white males compared to racial minorities and women.
One exception is the impact of weekly hours worked on earnings. White
males receive a benefit to earnings from weekly hours worked above and
beyond that of White women, African American men, African American women
and Mexican American women. Additionally, white men's earnings remain
higher than African Americans, Mexican Americans and white women because
of higher occupational attainment and longer job tenure.
POLICY IMPLEMENTATION: THE INVISIBLE BARRIER
Roberta Rehner Iverson
to participation in welfare-to-work programs are generally described
in terms of human and social capital. Findings from case examination
of four Philadelphia-area welfare-to-work programs under TANF suggest
that theory about policy implementation is more applicable. Faulty policy
logic, organizational and personnel incompetence, and inadequate coordination
between and within funding, referral, program and employer organizations
regularly resulted in delayed program start-ups and strained program
operations. Generally invisible and absent from research attention,
these implementation delays and strains impeded program staff efforts
and harmed TANF recipients. States' 24-month time limit policies are
a critical target for advocacy efforts.
Impact of Education and Family Attributes on Attitudes and Responses
to Unemployment among Men and Women
The study deals with differences between jobless Israeli women (n =
361) and men (n = 253) in relation to the following aspects of unemployment:
Reasons for rejecting potential jobs, job search intensity, and responses
to unemployment. The women mentioned more reasons for rejecting potential
jobs, and their health-related responses to unemployment were more extreme
than those of the men. However, the men tended to seek employment more
intensively than did the women.
Married respondents of both sexes showed the greatest tendency to reject
potential employment due to conflict with family responsibilities. Married
women were also more likely than their male counterparts to reject potential
jobs due to adverse working conditions or masculine-typed employment.
Moreover, for both men and women the number of dependent children was
related to the tendency to reject potential employment due to con.ict
with family responsibilities. The divorced- widowed respondents expressed
more negative responses to unemployment compared with respondents the
other family status groups. Education level affected responses to unemployment
and rejection of jobs, although it did not have a differential impact
on men and women.
Social Security in Global Perspective. John Dixon.
Reviewed by Paul Terrell, University of California, Berkley.
Raised by the Government. Ira M. Schwartz and Gideon Fishman. Reviewed
by Sherrill Clark, University of California, Berkeley.
Internet and Technology for the Human Services. Howard Karger and
Reviewed by Sharon Pittman, Andrews University.
Work with Overwhelmed Clients. June Gary Hopps and Elaine Pinderhughes.
Reviewed by Charles Garvin, University of Michigan.
the Welfare State. Pranab Chatterjee.
Reviewed by Larry Nackerud, University of Georgia.
So You Think I Drive a Cadillac? Karen Seccombee.
Generational Equity Debate. John B. Williamson, Diane M. Watts-Roy
and Eric R. Kingson (Eds.).
of Prosperity: America's Working Families in an Age of Economic Insecurity.
Americans Hate Welfare. Martin Gilens.