from Volume 27, Number 3
GENERATION PARENTHOOD: A PANEL STUDY OF GRANDMOTHER AND GRANDCHILD
CORESIDENCY AMONG LOW INCOME FAMILIES, 1967-1992
Richard K. Caputo
article reports findings of a national study of low-income coresident
grandmothers and grandchildren between 1967 and 1992. A small
increasing minority of women was found to reside with their grandchildren
in low-income families over the study period, although the proportion
of those who did declined as they reached retirement age. More
than half of ever coresident low-income grandmothers (N=776) were second
generation parents for three or more years. The majority (64 percent)
was Black. Among ever coresident low-income grandmothers in 1992
(N=521), being Black and being single increased the likelihood of being
a second-generation parent. Previous low-income coresidency also
predicted low-income coresidency in 1992. Further, older low-income
second-generation parents were more likely to reside in skipped vs.
three-generation families, as were those outside the South. The
author argues that low-income coresident grandmothers may be adversely
affected by time limits associated with the Personal Responsibilities
and Work Opportunities Act of 1996. Changes to the PRA and the
Earned Income Tax Credit are discussed.
A DIFFERENCE: HUMAN SERVICE INTEREST GROUP INFLUENCE ON SOCIAL
WELFARE PROGRAM REGULATIONS
workers increasingly understand the importance of political action to
affect legislative policy-making. This paper sheds light onto
the unexplored subject of interest group influence on the executive
branch, specifically on the writing of program regulations for social
welfare programs. It describes groups active in the process and
what they do in their quest for influence. It also presents a
preliminary model of interest group influence on regulation writing.
Results show that having greater access, articulating a liberal policy
position, choosing a "better" strategy and devoting more resources to
influence efforts are all significant predictors of a group's influence
during the Clinton Administration.
DISCOURSE OF DENIGRATION AND THE CREATION OF OTHER
Joshua Miller & Gerald Schamess This
paper attempts to reduce the distance between intellectual frameworks
that inform different fields of social work practice by exploring the
relationships between intrapsychic mechanisms, family dynamics,
small group processes and such society wide phenomena as public denigration,
scapegoating, and the systematic oppression of politically targeted
population subgroups. Clinical theories are used to explore disturbing
social trends such as the redistribution of wealth while cutting services
to the needy, the growth of prisons and disproportionate numbers of
incarcerated people of color, societal retreat from social obligation
and commitment and divisive political rhetoric. Suggestions are
made about how clinical social workers can actively engage in forceful
TO PRISON: LIFE HISTORIES OF FORMER CLIENTS OF THE CHILD WELFARE
AND JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS
Stephen A. Kapp
study examines the relationship between child maltreatment and future
offending from the viewpoint of former clients. Imprisoned adults
describe their experiences in child welfare and juvenile justice system
services. Specifically, those placed out of the home originally
into the child welfare system have a different perspective on their path
to prison than those placed into the juvenile justice system as delinquents.
The study contributes to the literature by examining the relationship
between the services children receive in the child welfare system as well
as the juvenile justice system and their imprisonment as adults from a
former recipient's point of view.
CLASS, AND SUPPORT FOR EGALITARIAN STATISM AMONG THE AFRICAN AMERICAN
study uses data from the 1990 and 1987 years of the General Social Survey
to assess the effects of minority status and position in the class structure
in explaining middle class African Americans' support for opportunity-enhancing
and outcome-based egalitarian statist policies. Findings do not
provide confirmation for prior research that has found that racial effects
are predominant, but has considered a more narrow range of policies and
not assessed interaction effects. First, neither additive
nor interactive effects of race and social class explain support for government
policies that are premised on providing people with skills to compete
in the labor market. Second, interaction effects are salient
for government policies that are intended to guarantee socioeconomic outcomes.
Specifically, the joint effects of race and social class explain levels
of support that are intermediate between the relatively pro-interventionist
views of working class racial peers and the more anti-statist stance of
white middle class counterparts. The race/class dynamics are interpreted
as a product of the extent to which the two policy types conform to the
dominant principles of American stratification ideology. In addition,
implications of the findings for understanding the kinds of policies likely
to be enacted and racial inequality in the policy implementation process
are discussed. Finally, suggestions for future research that shed
additional light on the race/class basis of opinions of egalitarian statism
VIOLENCE AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN MALES: INTEGRATING FAMILY, NEIGHBORHOOD,
AND PEER PERSPECTIVES
M. Daniel Bennett, Jr. and MarkW. Fraser
though rates have declined in recent years, violence is a serious
problem in many American cities. This paper reviews recent perspectives
on violence among young, urban African American males. Special attention
is afforded the "father absent" hypothesis, the effect of poverty,
the character of neighborhoods, the roots of self-efficacy, and peer influence,
particularly the influence of street codes. The latter are argued
both to regulate some situational behavior and to promote
the use of violence in disputes over social status, drugs, and money.
The authors discuss implications for policy and community development.
ENCOURAGING THE GROWTH OF SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITIES: A JAMAICAN CASE
concept of sustainable communities assumes a process of social and/or
economic development that has a high priority, the needs of the future
generation. However, models of social and economic development employed
in developing countries, must rely heavily on political, social
and psychological empowerment techniques being employed at the community
level, in order to warrant any type of sustainability becomnes the experience
of a Social Work Unit/private company in partnership, becoming involved
in a low-income community's drive for sustainable development.
The paper will reflect on the intervention, the analysis of which suggests
inclusion and acceptance of a 'third party' support mechanism by the community
and the presence of visible political and economic support from the government
as the two factors which impact directly on creation of sustainable development
initiatives in communities such as this.
THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF GENDER ROLE SOCIALIZATION ON WELFARE POLICY
Magalene Harris Taylor
article addresses a five year welfare reform pilot project conducted at
the state level. The outcome of research findings for this project
indicate that factors other than the obvious are barriers to women choosing
work over welfare. Gender role socialization may play an active
and very significant role in this process. The reality of
which may inhibit welfare reform efforts at the state and national levels.
BABIES: THE PROBLEM OF WELFARE ELIGIBILITY FOR CHILDREN RAISED BY
Rebecca L. Hegar & Maria Scannapieco
article discusses a welfare reform project conducted in the state of Washington.
This five year longitudinal study tracked the market interest of women
on welfare during this time. For the most part, the project was
unsuccessful in moving the majority of these women into the labor market.
This article explores an underlying cause and possible explanation for
the choices made by these women.
of Social Policy. James Midgley, Martin B. Tracy and Michelle
Reviewed by Shanti Khinduka, Washington University in St. Louis.
Apart: Why Poverty Persists in Rural America. Cynthia
Duncan. Reviewed by William Rainford, University of California,
to Make it: Urban Families and Adolescent Success. Frank Furstenberg Jr., Thomas D. Cook, Jacquelynne Eccles, Glen H.
Elder Jr., and Arnold Sameroff.
Reviewed by Deborah Page-Adams, University of Kansas.
People: New Slavery in the Global Economy. Kevin
Bales. Reviewed by Jo Beall, London School of Economics.
Communities in Conflict: International Assistance in Complex
Emergencies: Kimberly A Maynard.
Reviewed by Nancy Farwell, University of Washington.
Justice: Liberalism, Group Constructs and Individual Realities. Leroy H. Pelton
A case study taken from Kingston, Jamaica recounts and exami.
Reviewed by Pranab Chatterjee, Case Western Reserve University.
Strengths of African American Families: 25 Years Later. Robert B. Hill.
the Mountain: The Women's Movement in America Since 1960.
on the Line: American Families and the Struggle to Make Ends Meet.
Martha Shirk, Neil G. Bennett and J. Lawrence Aber.
Policy in a Changing Society. Maurice Mullard and Paul