This study aims at formulating adequate criteria for designing the
field of human services. Based on a conceptual analysis of "human services"
the study establishes the theoretical ground of a four category model
for classifying human service organizations, and three alternative definitions
of the field. The classificatory principle underlying the model and the
definitions reflects the contribution of human services to overall societal
well-being. I conclude the study by discussing the implications for social
welfare policy planning, service design and evaluation, and shaping the
nature of the helping professions.
AND LABOR: A LOOK AT THE NORTH AMERICAN AGREEMENT ON LABOR COOPERATION
The North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation (NAALC), a side agreement
to NAFTA, provides an instructive example of an attempt to link global
trade to labor standards. While this side agreement was created in order
to bolster the internationalization of trade, it has brought Labor, human
rights groups and governments together to scrutinize and challenge the
ways that each NAFTA member country ensures the provision of basic health,
safety, and human rights on the job. Effective enforcement of the Agreement
will come only with political pressure from a wide variety of groups interested
in improving quality of life for workers and their families. However,
despite growing recognition of the importance of international social
welfare efforts, social work groups have yet to become involved in monitoring
the effect of trade on worker quality of life. This lack of involvement
is reflective of social work's general estrangement from organized labor,
despite many common goals. Increased cooperation between unions and social
welfare groups would benefit their respective, and frequently shared,
AND CONFIDENCE IN THE POLICE: AMERICA'S CHANGING ATTITUDES TOWARD CRIME
AND POLICE, 1972-1999
Georgia Ackerman, Bobbie Anderson, Scott Jensen, Randy Ludwig,
Darrel Montero, Nicole Plante, and Vince Yanez
This paper examines American national public opinion on crime and the
American police force. The data were gathered from published opinion polls
of national samples of adults taken from 1972-1999. The findings reveal
that Americans have contradictory perceptions regarding crime in their
area, crime in our nation, confidence in the police, and the honesty of
the nation's police officers. A growing number of respondents report that
crime seems to be decreasing; however, a majority of Americans still report
that there is more crime in their area than there was a year ago. These
are only a few examples of the complexity of American public opinion.
Adding to this intricate web of American opinion and attitude is the issue
of ethnicity. National polls indicate that most Americans are satisfied
with police honesty and ethics. However, when we control for ethnicity,
minorities rate the honesty and ethical standards of police officers much
lower than do White Americans. Nevertheless, despite the widespread media
reports of erosion in trust in the police, a solid majority of Americans
consistently express confidence in and support of the police. These findings
are discussed in light of the apparent contradiction of the actual crime
rates and perceived crime rates.
AND ENFORCEMENT OF A TEEN CURFEW LAW
Richard D. Sutphen and Janet Ford
This article examines the effect of a teen curfew on juvenile arrest rates
and reviews the first year of the curfew's implementation in a city of
over 200,000 population. Juvenile arrest rates were compared for three
years prior to the curfew's enactment and three years of curfew enforcement.
Data related to 377 curfew violations and 83 parent citations issued in
22 police beats during the first year of implementation were analyzed
to determine whether the curfew was primarily enforced in areas with serious
juvenile crime or targeted low income, minority neighborhoods. Results
indicate that the curfew had no effect on total juvenile arrests, felonies,
misdemeanors, violent (serious) crimes or property crimes. More curfew
violations were issued in areas with higher rates of juvenile arrests,
higher levels of police presence, and lower family incomes. Parental citations
were highest in areas with lower family income and greater proportions
of African American populations.
TRANSMISSION OF GRANDMOTHER-GRANDCHILD CO-RESIDENCY
Richard K. Caputo
This study examined national data from two women's cohorts to determine
the likelihood that Black grandmothers who resided with grandchildren
were more likely than other grandmothers were to have daughters who resided
with grandchildren. Of 1098 co-resident grandmothers, 390 (36%) were in
the younger of the two cohorts, 603 (55%) were in the older, and 105 (9%)
were in both, comprising the sub-sample of grandmother-grandchild mother-daughter
pairs. A significantly higher proportion of mothers in the grandmother-grandchild
mother-daughter pairs were Black (83%) compared to 37% of the mothers
among the non-paired ever co-resident grandmothers. The study also found,
by proxy, that the co-resident grandmother-grandchild mother-daughter
pairs had lower socioeconomic standing than non-paired ever co-resident
OF RUSSIAN SOCIAL POLICY IN THE TRANSITION TOWARD A MARKET ECONOMY
Isabel Pla Julian
The last few years have witnessed truly extraordinary events in the formerly
communist societies. These countries were characterized by the great importance
attached to social policy as opposed to market economy countries with
a similar level of economic growth. However, the transition process toward
a market economy has set new conditions for the functioning of governing
levels and companies, which has affected social policies altogether. On
the one hand, economic liberalization has brought about a reduction of
the Russian Government's intervention in the economy, particularly in
social policy. On the other hand, the privatization of the state company
in a post-communist society would have implied a new way of economic management
based on the principal of competition, in direct opposition to the nature
of communist companies. Consequently, such a view of the reforms suggests
a social policy of a lower magnitude. However, the difficulties of the
transitions now underway in the countries that are emerging from communism
(which is increasing claims for social protection) together with the deep-rooted
nature of the social securities inherited from the communist period, is
putting this new approach of a minimal social policy into question.
KNOWLEDGE AND REACTION TO SUSPECTED CHILD ABUSE IN AN URBAN SETTING Gary
Paquin, John Schafer and Adam C. Carle
Neighbors are seen as an important source of child abuse prevention
and reporting. This article reports the result of a random telephone survey
of a large mid-western city (n=513) which examined the extent to which
respondents suspected their neighbors of physical child abuse. Data were
also collected how respondents learned of such physical abuse, what their
response to it was, and whether they noticed a difference in the frequency
of the abuse after they did or did not respond. In this urban environment,
relatively few knew of their neighbors' physical abuse, and those who
did learned of the abuse by either seeing or hearing it occur. Most reported
the abuse, many did nothing, but some intervened in the situation. Parents
of minor children reacted differently than adults without children. The
impact of neighbors' reactions on the future physical abuse of the child
was mixed. Neighbors responses to abuse when they witness or hear it might
be helpful in reducing immediate child injuries, but their long-term effects
MOBILITY AND YOUTH WELL-BEING: RESEARCH, POLICY, AND PRACTICE ISSUES Edward
Scanlon and Kevin Devine
Despite an extensive body of sociological work suggesting that residential
mobility reduces child well-being, the subject of relocation has been
largely overlooked in social work and social welfare literature. Recent
social policies threaten to increase the incidence of moving among low-income
families in the United States. This paper reviews theoretical and empirical
literature in this area and finds evidence that residential mobility reduces
children's academic functioning, and may negatively affect other aspects
of child well-being. These effects are especially strong for poor children
from single parent families, making this issue of particular relevance
for social work. The authors suggest implications for future research,
propose policies to increase residential stability, and provide directions
for social practice with mobile children.
VULNERABILITY OF PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES: ASSESSING POVERTY RISKS Andrew
I. Batavia and Richard L. Beaulaurier
The economic self-sufficiency and independence of people with disabilities
depend largely on their capacity to maintain financial stability. As a
group, such individuals have among the highest poverty rates, lowest educational
levels, lowest average incomes, and highest out-of-pocket expenses of
all population groups. Any substantial shock to the financial stability
of people with disabilities can threaten their access to necessary housing,
nutrition, medical care, and other resources, the absence of which may
result in further vulnerability and possible poverty. This article offers
a theoretical framework for understanding disability poverty risk. Empirical
studies are needed to test this model, quantifying the specific risk factors
and identifying coping mechanisms used by people with disabilities to
reduce vulnerability. The results will have important implications at
the individual, service provider, and policy levels.
Social Security for the Excluded Majority. Wouter van Ginneken
Reviewed by Mizanur Miah, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.
Divorce. Christy M. Buchanan, Eleonor E. Maccoby and Sanford M. Dornbusch.
Reviewed by Dorinda Noble, Louisiana State University.
for the Mental Health Professional: Growing a Private Practice for the
21st Century. Ralph H. Earle and Dorothy J. Barnes.
Reviewed by Rafael Herrera, University of California at Berkeley.
Addictions and Native
Americans. Lawrence Armand French.
Reviewed by Michael Gorman, San Jose State University.
Medicare Reform: Issues
and Answers. Andrew J. Rettenmaier and Thomas R. Saving (Ed.s).
Reviewed by Deborah Schild Wilkinson, University of Michigan.
Changing Politics of Canadian Social Policy. James R. Rice and
Michael J. Prince.
Poverty and Social
Assistance in Transition Countries. Jeanine Braithwaite, Christiaan Grootaert
and Branko Milanovic.
What's Love Got to
do With it?: A Critical Look at American Charity: David Wagner.
The Newer Deal: Social
Work and Religion in Partnership. Raam A. Chaan with Robert J. Wineburg
and Stephanie C. Boddie.