Impact of the Economy and Welfare Policy on Welfare Accessions: Implications
for Future Reforms
N. Albert and William C. King
study analyzes the impact of labor market conditions and welfare policies
accompanying the 1990s waivers granted by the federal government to
California and the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity
Act (PRWOA) on families entering welfare (accessions). A time series
model was specified for analyzing the number of families entering welfare
from January 1983 to December 1998. The findings suggest that in
1998 under PRWOA, all else constant, there were fewer case openings.
Prior to the PRWOA, policy shifts of the 1990s did not have an impact
on case openings. The findings also show that under economic recovery
fewer families applied for welfare. The implications of these findings
are that drastic measures such as time-limited welfare should be re-examined
since a favorable economic environment allows many recipients to remain off public
assistance even in the absence of such measures.
Transition from AFDC to PRWORA in Florida: Perceptions of the Role of
Case Manager in Welfare Reform
Beckerman and Leonard Fontana
was implemented in Florida with the passage of WAGES. WAGES' emphasis
on support services in preparation for employment portends to be a radical
transformation of the "eligibility compliance" organizational culture
that had developed under AFDC. Interviews with welfare staff focused
on whether WAGES' offices were able to develop the organizational culture
and methods of frontline practice needed to implement
the goals of welfare reform legislation. The interviews indicate an
emerging organizational culture in which case managers readily identify
with the mantra of welfare reform. The interviews also indicate a discrepancy
between the importance of the case manager role and the ability to perform
all of their responsibilities in light of large caseloads and the desire
to quickly involve clients in employment-seeking activities.
New Perspective on Families that Receive Temporary Assistance for Needy
R. Larrison, Larry Nackerud and Ed Risler
A review of
the scholarly literature shows that a number of analyses of welfare
are mistakenly based upon the premise that the overwhelming majority
of welfare recipients receive benefits because they are young single
women who are undereducated and caring for a child either born out of
wedlock or abandoned by divorce/separation. The term welfare can encompasses
a number of social programs (e.g. Food Stamps, state general assistance
programs, Medicaid), but in this paper it refers specifically to Aid
to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) or its contemporary Temporary
Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). In an attempt to calibrate the
accuracy of this long held stereotype, the authors surveyed a representative
stratified random sample of individuals who received TANF in the state
of Georgia. The resulting profile led to the identification of four
distinctive groups on the welfare rolls. These groups or groupings,
as they are referred to in the paper, show that only some families .t
the traditional stereotype while others are accessing the welfare system
Because of health problems, child abandonment, limited retirement assets,
poor education, and fluctuating labor markets.
Historical Uniqueness of the Clinton Welfare Reforms: A New Level of
argues that the 1996 reforms to the American welfare state have no historical
precedent. They are not a return to "the poorhouse era" and are radically
distinct from Great Britain's new poor law of 1834, to which they are
often compared. America is the first advanced capitalist country to
jettison a significant element of its welfare state and, as such, is
moving into waters that are uncharted and dangerous.
Exploration into Individual Development Accounts as an Anti-Poverty
cross-sectional sampling procedure was utilized in this study to determine
what factors are related to households choosing to utilize Individual
Development Accounts (IDAs) as a means to escape poverty. Surveys from
111 households were collected from September 1997, to April 1999, in
seven Ohio counties to elucidate the relationship between the level
of assets in working poor households and selected household demographic
variables, and the decision on whether or not to actually participate
in an IDA
program. Findings revealed that households 1) with more than one wage
earner and 2) with higher levels of education are more likely to join
an Individual Development Account and benefit from a matched savings
account. The implications of an asset-based social welfare policy strategy
will be discussed.
Future Orientation, and Well-Being: Exploring and Extending Sherraden's
Marcia Shobe and Deborah Page-Adams
the incidence and impact of poverty has been central to social work
practice since the birth of the profession (Addams, 1910; Franklin,
1986). The prevailing anti-poverty paradigm holds that well-being is
almost exclusively dependent upon income. Social work scholar and educator,
Michael Sherraden (1988; 1991) suggests a new anti-poverty paradigm
whereby combined income and asset building initiatives may improve the
well-being of poor households. Sherraden (1991) suggests that assets
effects on well-being, including future orientation. The extended conceptual
framework suggested here further specifies that future orientation has
a direct role in its relationship with assets and well-being.
Health Needs of TANF Recipients
Layne K. Stromwall
reports findings of a study of female Temporary Aid to Needy Families
(TANF) and non-recipients ages 1840, receiving behavioral health
services in the rural Southwest in 19989. TANF recipients (N =119)
were more likely to be seriously mentally ill than non-recipients (N
= 370), suggesting that a subgroup of TANF recipients may face significant
barriers to employment given the new TANF regulations. The author argues
that responsibility for recognizing the needs of TANF recipients for
behavioral health services is shared by both the public welfare and
behavioral health systems. Suggestions for meeting this challenge in
both systems are discussed.
Other Side of the Desk: Former Welfare Recipients Who Now Work for "The
Cheek and Kathleen W. Piercy
framework of identity theory, twenty female former welfare recipients
who are currently human service workers discussed how their past experiences
affected current service provision and their views of the welfare system.
Semi-structured interviews were used, and data were coded and analyzed
using the multistage process designed by McCracken (1988) for long interviews.
Respondents discussed how their experiences made them more empathetic
towards their clients and gave them insight into the strengths and weaknesses
of the past and present welfare systems. Results show support for identity
theory by showing how past identities affect present ones.
Ins and Outs of Welfare-to-Work: Women as They Enter and Exit a Nursing
Assistant Employment and Training Program
observation and follow up interviews (at three intervals post-graduation),
this study explores the multiple work accountabilities arranging women's
everyday lives as they enter and exit a welfare-to-work nursing assistant
employment and training program. Work and family demands, and male partners'
and children's reactions to the women's participation
in labor arrangements outside the home are complicated by children's
chronic illnesses and partners' disabilities and unemployment situations.
From this consideration, the author argues that there is an incomplete
gender shift in welfare policy. While it creates clear obligations to
family and work for women trainees, the policy produces uncertain consequences
and conditions for the women's (male) partners. These various circumstances
explain the conflicting narratives of success and injustice in the women's
descriptions of their experiences of welfare-to-work after training.
Policy recommendations beginning from the women's everyday experiences
Food Assistance in a Small Metropolitan Area: Urban Resources and Rural
J. Molnar, Patricia A. Duffy, LaToya Claxton, and Conner Bailey
and other private feeding programs have become an institutionalized
component of the social welfare system in over 190 urban areas in the
U.S. More recently, private food assistance has gained importance in
rural areas as well. The density and capacity of agencies to serve the
poor is higher in urban areas than in sparsely populated rural locales
where distance and dispersal tend to be barriers to supplying and accessing
donated food. Rural food distribution strategies thus must be qualitatively
different than those in larger communities, because of the smaller-scale,
more informal distributional system.
Little is known about how urban-based nonprofit services stimulate and
support food assistance in surrounding rural locales. Based on intensive
interviews with food bank staff, food pantry directors, and food pantry
clientele, we examine obstacles affecting the use of food pantries and
the amelioration of food insecurity. We also provide an assessment of
how changes in federal welfare provisions may be affecting the need
for private food assistance.
TANF Sanctions to Increase High School Graduation
Harris, Loring Jones and Daniel Finnegan
Attendance Demonstration Project (SADP) was aimed at encouraging AFDC
teens to attend school and finish high school. The project used a combined
approach of the financial incentive in the form of a penalty for non-attendance,
and the provision of social services. SADP tracked the school attendance
and graduation status of eligible teens (n=997) in the San Diego United
School District (SDUSD). The study utilized a control group with random
assignment. Data indicated that SADP did not effect graduations. The
findings seem to indicate that at risk teens from families receiving
public assistance have on-going problems with securing an education
that are diffcult to correct with SADP services and sanctions.
Wives: Pioneers of the American Family Revolution. Bart Landry. Review by Tracey
as Partners in Health: A Critical Review of the Child-to-Child Approach.
Pat Pridmore and David Stephens.
Politics of Gay Rights. Craig A. Rimmerman, Kenneth D. Wald, Clyde Wilcox
Review by John F. Longres
the color line: A White Adoptive Mother Learns About Race. Sharon E.
Jill Duerr Berrick 229
to Middletown: Three Generations of Sociological Reflections. Rita Caccamo.
Robert D. LeighningerJr.
Task Planner: An Intervention Resource for Human Service Professionals.
William J. Reid.
Struggle Against Poverty in the Twentieth Century.
James T. Patterson
Lives: Family Work and Welfare.
and Ross Ferguson (Eds.)
Fathers: The Politics of Fatherlessness in America.
of Imagination: Bootstrap Capitalism, Sequel to Welfare Reform. David
Juvenile Court and the Progressives.