Street to Contracted Services: Financing the Settlement House
This article tracks
historically the direct connection and shifting relationship between
the larger political economy, the extent and arrangement of financing,
and agency programming in the settlement house from 1886 to the present,
with particular attention to agency experience in New York City. During
this time the settlements changed from being informal organizations
oriented to service provision and community building, in which funding
was a highly private matter, to formalized, multiservice agencies dependent
on contracted public funds for categorical programs. This transformation
resulted not as a linear progression of organizational development but
rather as an historical process tied to shifting patterns of political
economy and voluntary sector financing.
My Kids on the Bus": Transit Shift Workers' Coping Strategies for Parenting
Blanche Grosswald Rutgers
The study investigated coping strategies for parenting of transit shift
workers, an urban, blue-collar, primarily ethnic minority population.
It involved a qualitative, grounded theory approach, using individual
interviews with 30 San Francisco bus drivers. The principal aspect of
the job impacting transit workers' relationships with their children
was the lack of time they had together. Drivers had to be creative to
find ways to care for their children. They could not rely exclusively
on formal child care because hours at childcare centers did not match
their job schedules. Coping strategies for care included taking children
on the bus, working shifts complementary to those of spouses, using
siblings as surrogate parents, substituting material gifts for time,
and separating work from family. Future research cannot group shift
work as one composite. Shiftworking doctors and nurses experience different
working conditions from those of bus drivers that may lead to variations
in parental caring. Policy suggestions include child care services and
Males: A Group Forgotten by the Profession of Social Work
Social work literature has mainly focused upon females and gay males.
A search was undertaken of general references to heterosexual males
in published social-work authored articles and appearing in book reviews
and publishers' ads in two prominent social work journals during the
last decade. The conclusion reached was that heterosexual males are
seldom discussed and when they are discussed they are portrayed in a
very biased manner. It is believed that social workers do not receive
necessary preparation for understanding and working with heterosexual
males, especially from minority and immigrant groups, who are facing
emotional, physical, interpersonal, and family problems. A stereotypic
view of heterosexual males is both unfair and untrue, and precludes
necessary attention in the classroom and in practice to their normative
needs and special problems.
Violence Law Reforms: Reactions from the Trenches
In recent years, feminists have worked hard to pressure society and
the criminal justice system into taking domestic violence seriously.
These efforts have resulted in more government funding and increased
services to victims. In addition, there have also been legal and policy
reforms which have affected the way cases are handled in the criminal
justice system. This article reports on research on the reactions to
those reforms by those most directly affected by them, the victims themselves
and those who provide services to them.
Test Performance in the American Educational System: The Impact of Race
Stephen J. Finch
Contrary to Herrnstein and Murray (1994) who claim that racial groups
have different cognitive endowments and that these best explain differential
test score achievements, our regression analyses document that there
is less improvement in test scores per year of education for African-Americans
and women. That is, the observed group test score differences do not
appear to be due to racial cognitive differences but rather to other
factors associated with group-linked experiences in the educational
system. We found that 666 of the subjects in the Herrnstein-Murray database
had actual IQ scores derived from school records. Using these as independent
controls for IQ, we document that each of the test components that were
the basis of the Herrnstein-Murray "IQ" scores was significantly associated
with education level (p< .001). Consequently, their IQ score appears
to be an education-related measure rather than an IQ test, and thus
challenges the validity of their analysis.
Policies that Address the Relationship Between Woman Abuse and Economic
Given the disproportionate and increasing number of impoverished women,
and poor women's increased vulnerability to woman abuse, it is crucial
we examine economic policies in regards to their equity and adequacy
for abused women. Current policies and programs designed to address
the economic resources/needs of abused women are analyzed. Limitations
in current policies are addressed, and a recommendation is made for
the formation and implementation of a policy that would serve to empower
women economically. Both the prospect and achievement of economic independence
for women may not only reduce woman abuse, but will also increase women's
options for economic security.
or Work: Teen Mothers, Household Subsistence Strategies, and Child Development
There is probably no aspect of the work versus welfare debate that is
more contested than the effects of welfare use on child development
outcomes. Liberals tend to emphasize the detrimental effects of poverty
and welfare stigma on children, while conservatives cite the negative
socialization that occurs regarding the value of work within welfare
dependent families. However, large scale longitudinal studies that have
been used to address this question only indirectly measure critical
influences on child development such as maternal mental health and do
not consider the effect that a range of economic strategies that low-income
mothers might undertake may have on their children. In this analysis,
we employ data from a longitudinal study of 173 teen-mothers to assess
the relative effects of maternal characteristics and economic strategies
on the developmental outcomes of their children at time of school entry.
Two principal findings emerge. First, over the period from their first
teen birth to the reference child's entry into school, the sample subjects
used a variety of household economic strategies aside from the simple
welfare versus work dichotomy that is commonly used to depict the choices
of teen-mothers. Second, while maternal depression appears linked to
the prevalence of problem behaviors in early childhood, the particular
economic strategies used by the mothers in the sample do not explain
any variation in either the prevalence of problem behaviors or in children's
learning preparation for school entry. These findings support the perspective
that the influence of teen mothers' parenting qualities on child development
cannot be assessed through an analysis of their labor force participation,
use of welfare, or other strategies of household subsistence.
and Foster Family Service
Mary Ellen Cox
Using data from the National Survey of Current and Former Foster Parents
this study examined how foster parents first found out about the need
for foster parents (mass media, other foster parents, religious organization,
or civic organization) affected foster family service (number of children
fostered, years of fostering service, fostering of children with special
needs, and families' intent to continue fostering). Respondents who
became aware of the need for foster parents through religious organizations
fostered for more years; respondents who became aware through mass media
fostered for fewer years. How foster families first found out about
the need for foster parents did not differentially affect other foster
family service measures. Implications for foster parent recruitment
and future research are discussed.
in Incarcerations Among Women and its Impact on the Grandmother Caregiver:
Some Racial Considerations
Dorothy S. Ruiz
This article analyzes census data on the increase in incarcerations
among women, with specific emphasis on some racial differences. The
steady rise in female incarcerations and its impact on grandmothers
who are caregivers of their children is the focus of this analysis.
The article includes sociodemographic and health characteristics of
imprisoned mothers, a review of relevant research, the impact of incarcerations
on family caregivers, and implications for research. The rate of female
incarceration has increased by 11%per year since 1985. A disproportionally
higher number are women of color. Approximately fifty-three percent
of the children whose mothers are imprisoned are cared for by grandmothers.
The rapid increase in the female incarceration rate suggests the need
for additional research on the social, economic, and health impact of
this phenomenon on family caregivers, especially grandmothers.
Family Group Conferencing: New Directions in Community-Centered Child
and Family Practice. Gail Buford and Joe Hudson (Eds.)
Review by Richard P. Barth
Female Offenders and Victims: A Strengths-Restorative Approach.
Review by Elizabeth C. Pomeroy
In the Name
of Hate: Understanding Hate Crimes. Barbara Perry.
Review by Wilma Peebles-Wilkins
of Social Security. John
Dixon and Mark Hyde (Eds.).
Review by Kwong-leung Tang
Making it in
the "FreeWorld":Women in Transition from Prison. Patricia O'Brien.
Review by Katherine van Wormer
Exchange, Action, and Social Structure: Elements of Economic Sociology.
Continuity and Change in the Contemporary Family. Pauline Irit Erera.
to Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Isfahan Merali and Valerie
Concepts and Challenges. Nancy Morrow-Howell, James Hinterlong and Michael
of the Third Way: Globalization and Social Justice. Otto Newman and
Richard de Zoysa.