Mommy Track: The Consequences of GenderIdeology and Aspirations
on Age At First Motherhood
While there is
extensive and compelling evidence that growing up in an impoverished
background leads to early fertility, few studies explain why early
socioeconomic disadvantage leads to early childbearing. Using
data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, I test whether
gender ideology, as well as educational and occupational aspirations,
mediates the connection between poverty and teen fertility patterns.
Traditional gender ideology depresses age at first motherhood.
Adolescent aspirations appear to act as protective factors in
the production of early pregnancy.
Women: An Ethnographic Study of Homeless Mothers and Popular Education
This article discusses ethnographic research conducted between
1995 and 1998 that studied the impact of popular education on
the lives of fifty homeless and formerly homeless mothers. Data
collection involved indepth interviews and participant observation
in a family shelter located in one of Boston's poorest neighborhoods.
The article argues that popular education increased the women's
self-esteem, they were inspired to help other low-income women,
they learned to advocate for their rights and they became more
involved in their children's education. The findings suggest that
popular education can best address the academic, personal, and
community goals of very poor women.
Settlement House Tradition: Current Trends and Future Concerns Beverly Koerin
The settlement tradition represents a comprehensive approach that
"strengthens individual and neighborhood assets, and builds collective
capacity to address community problems" (Hirota, Brown, & Martin,
1996, p. i). While there is a rich literature on the history of
the settlement movement, there is little information about contemporary
settlement houses. This paper reports findings of a national survey
of settlement houses/neighborhood centers that provide information
about programs and services offered, populations served, unmet
community needs, and policies or trends that contribute to or
respond to these needs.
First Four Months in a New Foster Placement: Psychosocial Adjustment,
Parental Contact and Placement Disruption
James G. Barber
Intake and four-month follow-up measures were obtained for 235
children referred into a new foster care placement over a 12-month
period in the Australian State of South Australia.Twenty-five
percent of the sample returned home within 4-months, and for those
who remained in care throughout, there had been modest gains in
behavior, psychological adjustment and adjustment at school. On
the other hand, there were considerable levels of placement disruption,
a high degree of non-compliance with parental visiting plans,
and a high proportion of children fell outside ninety-five percent
confidence intervals for the general adolescent population on
most well-being measures, particularly conduct disorder.
Welfare Clients to Jobs: Discretionary Use of Worker Social Capital
Children and the Courts Judicial Council of California Administrative
Office of the Courts The overarching theme of the 1996 welfare
reform law was to move clients from dependency to self-sufficiency
by facilitating their entry into the labor market. While numerous
mechanisms were used to do this, this study explores discretionary
actions taken by workers to help clients find jobs, namely, tapping
into their own social capital. Respondents in one urban and one
rural county in a southern state reported using their own social
capital to get information regarding job openings and to exert
influence to get clients hired. Notably, respondents at all levels
of the bureaucracy expected this behavior to occur. Both the positive
and negative aspects of social capital emerged as points of discussion
in the rural county. Potential bene.ts and risks of worker social
capital use are discussed as are future research directions and
Start, Other Preschool Programs, & Life Success in a Youth Cohort
Richard K. Caputo
This study assesses the effects of Head Start and other preschool
programs on five life success measures in a U.S. cohort of youth
(N = 5,621). The life success indices are average annual income-to-poverty
ratios, economic mobility, and number of years the youth lived
in families whose incomes fell below official poverty thresholds,
received Food Stamps, and received TANF/AFDC. Controlling for
a variety of background and other factors in separate regression
models for each life success measure, results show that youth
who participated in preschool programs other than Head Start had
higher average annual income-to-poverty ratios than nonpreschoolers.
Bivariate findings corroborate previous research indicating that
Head Starters are economically and behaviorally disadvantaged
compared to both other preschool and non-preschool children. Multivariate
.ndings of this study also show that Head Starters do as well
as nonpreschoolers in regard to the four other life success measures.
In essence, on these measures Head Starters become mainstreamed
by the time they enter the labor force, start their own families,
and form their own households, such that they fare no better or
worse than other preschoolers and nonpreschoolers in regard to
economic mobility, years lived in poor families, and receipt of
Food Stamps and TANF/AFDC. Findings support continued funding
of Head Start but also suggest that higher levels of funding may
be necessary to raise family incomes above poverty comparable
to other preschool programs.
Need Got to Do with It? Barriers to Use of Nonprofit Social Services
Rebecca Joyce Kissane
In recent years, legislators have called upon private nonprofit
and proprietary organizations to assume a larger role in provision
of public benefits to poor persons. Little research, however,
has examined poor people's willingness to use nonprofit agencies
in lieu of public welfare. This analysis draws data from over
2 years of fieldwork and in-depth interviews with twenty poor
women in Philadelphia. I demonstrate that decisions to use nonprofits
are contingent upon stigma, information, practical predicaments
(e.g., agency hours), and perceived need. I explore the implications
of these impediments in a post-welfare reform landscape, while
focusing on how decisions to use private services differ from
those to use public welfare. One cannot assume that because people
have needs they will use nonprofit services to meet them.
Special Populations Are Not the Target of Family Preservation
Services: A Case for Program Reform
Ramona W. Denby & Carla M. Curtis
The number of children who have been placed outside their homes
of origin as a result of abuse, neglect, delinquency, emotional
problems, or developmental disabilities, is astronomical and steadily
increasing. Of this number, "special populations" like children
of color continue to be disproportionately represented. Intensive
family preservation, a program that attempts to reduce out-of-home
placement rates, has not demonstrated empirically, a sustained
record of success in the reduction of placement rates among special
populations. The purpose of the current study was to understand
the manner in which special populations are targeted for services
by examining the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of a national
sample of family preservation workers. Results indicate a significant
bias against targeting family preservation services to special
populations in general, and children of color in particular. Specific
recommendations about the targeting of special populations are
Welfare: A Cross National Study of Social Provision.
Schaffner Goldberg and Marguerite Rosentha
Reviewed by Charles
Drug War Heresies: Learning
from Other Vices, Times & Places.
Robert J. MacCoun and
by Lorraine T. Midanik
Fear: News and the Construction of a Crisis.
David L. Altheide
Reviewed by Allan
Its Role in Psychosocial Functioning and Psychotherapy.
by Timothy Page
Stereotyping and Prejudice Against Older Persons.
Reviewed by Nancy R. Hooyman
Care Work: The Quest for Security.
Reviewed by Katherine van Wormer
Children as Pawns: The
Politics of Educational Reform.
Timothy A. Hacsi
of Scienti.c Racism:Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund.
William H. Tucker
Council on Social Work
Education: Its Antecendents and First Twenty Years.
the New Paternalism: Basic Security as Equality.
The Invisible Caring Hand: American Congregations and the Provision
A. Cnaan with Stephanie C. Boddie, Femida Handy, Gaynor Yancey
and Richard Schneider
World of Welfare.
Blank and Ron Haskins