Profits, Productivity, & Poverty: A Great Divide Between the Pre-
and Post-Reagan U.S. Economy?
Richard K. Caputo
examined profits, productivity, and poverty in the United States
from 1961 through 2002. Results indicated that the "great divide" thesis
regarding the U.S. economy before and after the Reagan administration
depends on which measure of the economy is the focus of attention.
In addition, on some measures where before and after differences
were detected, the nature of those differences was paradoxical. Corporate
profits as a share of national income, for example, were highest
in Democratic rather than Republican administrations and despite
the increased income inequality of the post-Reagan years, individual
and family poverty rates remained relatively constant after edging
upward from the 1970s but still below 1960s highs. Further, findings
provide some evidence corroborating neoclassic economic theory in
regard to incentives and productivity and they present a challenge
to activists who equate poverty as a natural or an inevitable byproduct
of the more market-driven fiscal and monetary policies of the 1980s
Losing the "Eyes
in the Back of Our Heads": Social Service Skills, Lean Caring,
the social services work place in general, and the developmental
services in particular, has increased in the last several years.
Findings from an ethnographic study suggests that new, lean forms
of work organization remove opportunities to use or learn many of
the tacit or practice skills workers previously used to keep themselves
and their clients safer in the work place. This article describes
many of these skills and the new management schemes that remove the
possibility to develop or transmit these praxis skills. The article
concludes by analyzing the convergence between the new labour processes
and the competency approach to work place skills. Noting the loss
of praxis skills that kept workers and clients safer, the conclusion
highlights the hidden costs to developmental sector clients and workers.
of the Public Intellectual in Social Work
Howard Jacob Karger, Marie Theresa Hernández
examines reasons for social work's abandonment of public discourse,
activism and intellectual life. It also explores strategies to encourage
the profession to reenter public life and develop a modern cadre
of social work identified public intellectuals. Specifically, this
process entails professional and academic reform and a renewed vision
around the social justice mission of social work.
Care-Two-Tiered Care? The Work of Family Members and Friends in
Hospitals and Cancer Centres
In a qualitative
study conducted in Ontario, Canada, family members and friends of
ill people defined a normal territory in which care from health professionals
could not be counted on to be timely, effective or empathic. Under
these conditions relatives and friends took on considerable responsibility,
both for providing care and for securing care from health professionals.
Yet considerable variation was apparent in this study in the sense
respondents had of their own capacities to provide and secure care.
Findings from this study suggest that service tiers exist in the
institutional care system, linked to the time, knowledge and resources
of informal carers.
Well-Being of Single Mothers: Work First or Postsecondary Education?
Min Zhan, Shanta Pandey
investigates the relationship between single mothers' education and
their economic well-being. Through the analysis of the 1993 Panel
Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) data, we examine the effect of education
on a sample of White and African American single mothers. The results
indicate that past work experience is a weak predictor of current
economic well-being. Having education, particularly postsecondary
education, on the other hand, significantly improves their economic
status. The results challenge the "work-first" approach to alleviating
poverty and provide more support for designing policies to develop
Want: Welfare Reform and Maternal Desire
Patricia K. Jennings
In this study
I use participant observations, face-to-face interviews, and focus
group interviews to examine how women on welfare read and negotiate
culture-of-poverty discourse and the imagery that this discourse
spawns. I spoke with two groups of young single mothers receiving
welfare. The first group included young mothers between the ages
of 18 and 23 who were attending high school in a community-based
program that served women on welfare. The second group included mothers
in their early to mid 20's who were attending either a local two-year
college or research university. Education was a path of resistance
for the women in this study. Young single mothers were motivated
to obtain an education; they wanted a better life for their child.
As students, women were situated in a status that allowed them to
reject the attributes associated with dominant welfare imagery. Women
forged identities against the grain of dominant images that depict
all women on welfare as "lazy women" and "bad mothers." The students
in this study made a claim to characteristics like hard work, motivation,
and good parenting. Yet, students did not fully reject culture-of-poverty
discourse. Their identities as students were situated in a form of
oppositional thinking that set them against other women on welfare.
Communities: An Optimum Arrangement for the Older Population?
of older people to stay in their own natural environment requires
a reassessment of the approach in dealing with this population group.
This exploratory study examines a program conducted in Israel called
the "Supportive Community", that provides an emergency call service
and other essential services at the homes of older people. A case
study was performed in two such supportive communities. Interviews
conducted with those who operate the programs and with its members
seem to indicate that supportive communities provide a satisfactory
solution to the needs of older people who continue to live in their
natural environment. Many aspects have been addressed that may be
considered in planning the physical environment of supportive communities.
Group Participation and Empowerment in Hong Kong
reports on the first comprehensive study of self-help groups in Hong
Kong. Initial findings from the quantative and qualitative data suggest
that self-help group participation has an impact on intrapersonal,
interpersonal and community/political empowerment. Based on existing
data, this study has resulted in the development of a hypothetical
model encompassing the interrelationships among self-help group participation,
social support, social learning, leadership and empowerment, for
testing in future research.
Local Collisions: Urban Life in the New World Order.
Reviewed by Robert L. Boyd.
The Color of
Credit: Mortgage Discrimination, Research Methodology and Fair Lending
Stephen L. Ross and John Yinger.
Reviewed by Howard Jacob Karger.
in Child and Family Services: Comparative Client and Program Perspectives.
Tiziano Vecchiato, Anthony N. Malucchio and Cinzia Canali (Eds.).
Reviewed by Victor Groza.
Men Who Believe
Amanda Goldrick Jones.
Reviewed by Cheryl A. Hyde.
and Human Rights: A Foundation for Policy and Practice.
Reviewed by Mel Gray.
Across the Life Course.
Jenny Hockey and Alison James.
Reviewed by Marvin D. Feit.
Participants and Facilitating Social and Behavioral Sciences Research.
Constance F. Citro, Daniel R. Iglen and Cora B. Marrett (Eds.).
School Systems: Now Separate and Unequal.
of Intimate Life: Notes from Home and Work.
Arlie Russel Hochschild.
for Social Work Practice.
Joseph Anderson and Robin Wiggins Carter (Ed.).
Choices: Religion, Race and Poverty in the Post-Welfare Era.
John P. Bartkowski and Helen Regis.
Capitalist Democracy: The Cold War Origins of Rational Choice Liberalism.
S. M. Amadae.