SPECIAL ISSUE ON GLOBALIZATION,
SOCIAL JUSTICE & SOCIAL WELFARE
INTRODUCTION TO THE SPECIAL ISSUE
Frederick (Fritz) MacDonald and James Midgley,
PERSPECTIVES ON GLOBALIZATION, SOCIAL JUSTICE AND WELFARE
Although the social science literature on globalization has proliferated,
social policy and social work scholars have not adequately
debated the consequences of globalization for social welfare and
social justice. Drawing on different social science interpretations
of globalization, four major perspectives that offer different
analytical and normative insights into globalization are identified
and their implications for social welfare and social justice
are briefly examined. The implications of these perspectives for
social policy and social work scholarship are also considered.
GLOBALIZATION AND DRUG AND ALCOHOL USE IN RURAL COMMUNITIES IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY
This paper presents an exploratory study of alcohol and drug use
in two rural communities in Plateau State, Nigeria. The aim
is to raise awareness of the rural alcohol and drug problem. The
paper examines the patterns of alcohol consumption and drug
use, and their perceived functions for substance use among rural
farmers in Nigeria. The study shows the common use of marijuana
and alcohol in addition to prescription drugs. There is also
evidence of multiple or combinational drug use. Pleasure and relaxation
emerged as the major reasons for drug and alcohol use.
Factors influencing alcohol and drug use are the relative neglect
of rural communities, and the activities of hawkers, quacks, and
other untrained individuals pervading the rural health sectors.
The paper calls for further research to adequately capture the reality
of alcohol and drug use in rural communities in Nigeria.
COLOR-BLIND INDIVIDUALISM, INTERCOUNTRY ADOPTION AND PUBLIC POLICY
Pamela Anne Quiroz
A prevailing ideology of color-blindness has resulted in privatizing
the discourse on adoption. Color-blind individualism, the adoption
arena’s version of color-blind discourse, argues that race should not
matter in adoption; racism can be eradicated through transracial
adoption; and individual rights should be exercised without interference
of the state. As privatization has increasingly dominated
our world and disparities between countries have grown, so too has
intercountry adoption. This paper examines the colonial aspects of
intercountry adoption and implications for conceptualizing global
human rights from our current emphasis on individual rights, as the
real issue continues to be which children are desired by which parents.
THE CHALLENGE OF COMMUNITY WORK IN A GLOBAL ECONOMY
Howard Karger, Christian Iyiani and Pat Shannon
This article examines how and why five major stakeholders—international
financial organizations; NGOs; governmental entities;
multinational corporations; and community development projects—have failed to significantly and uniformly reduce aggregate
global poverty. The article uses the results of a case study of HIV/AIDS prevention in a low-income Nigerian city to argue that effective
action must involve local and global stakeholders in collaborative
partnerships. It concludes by discussing the critical role of
facilitators in such partnerships.
GLOBALIZATION, IMMIGRATION AND THE WELFARE STATE: A CROSS-NATIONAL COMPARISON
Over the past decades, the forces of globalization have helped created
a huge wave of immigration. The relationship between globalization
and immigration has been intensely examined in the
last decade with a focus not only on whether and how much globalization
has caused international immigration but also how to
promote and sustain a just global system for the growing number
of immigrants. This study selects three developed countries
with different welfare state philosophies and traditions—Australia,
Sweden and the United States—and compares how they
cope with the growing number of immigrants and their various
needs. This paper reflects thinking about states’ ability to redistribute
resources, about the ability to agree upon a unified theory
of welfare rights in a diverse society, and the feasibility of opening
nations’ welfare systems to all immigrants in the globalization
context and from a rights-based social work perspective.
GLOBALIZATION AND HUMAN TRAFFICKING
Loring Jones, David W. Engstrom, Tricia Hilliard and Mariel Diaz
Globalization demands that social workers embrace more than just
local and national perspectives; they must adopt an international
viewpoint as well. A negative aspect of globalization that deserves
more attention is the international movement of labor. This
paper presents a description and analysis of trafficking, the more
deleterious part of this movement of people, in a global context.
Decision makers seeking to make global migration more humane
need to know about the dynamics and process of trafficking, as
well as ways to combat it. Definitional controversies, contextual
issues (including the dynamics and processes of trafficking),
and consequences of this movement for individuals and societies
are discussed. Implications for social work are also presented.
GLOBALIZATION AND SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION AND PRACTICE: EXPLORING AUSTRALIAN PRACTITIONERS' VIEWS
Marina Findlay and John McCormack
The process of globalization is a controversial movement supported
by some due to the potential cross-national benefits, but
criticized by others because of the fragmented or uneven distribution
of those benefits. As many social workers interact with
clients who may be affected by globalization processes, we were
interested to investigate their educational preparedness and practice
views on this topic. Sixty-six social workers completed a
questionnaire which explored the relationship between local and
international issues. Practitioner responses indicated a strong interest
in the topic and widespread agreement that there is a link
between local and global issues on clients in their daily practice.
Also, while there was a diversity of opinion on educational preparedness
for global practice, practitioner responses again indicated
general agreement that ongoing education would be useful.
The paper concludes with some suggestions to further enhance
the knowledge and education of social workers for global practice.
TOWARD GLOBAL WELFARE STATE CONVERGENCE?: FAMILY POLICY AND HEALTH CARE IN SWEDEN, CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES
Gregg M. Olsen
Accounts of the welfare state and the dynamics governing its development
have been pivotal and highly contentious in the social
policy literature over the past few decades. Since the 1980s, research
has suggested that, as a result of domestic pressures and strains
and/or the impact of globalization, welfare states were declining in
tandem. However, most of these studies were quantitative, focusing
upon 18 or more advanced capitalist nations and, in their search to
uncover broad cross-national trends, utilized narrow welfare state
indicators. This study investigates the extent to which the social
democratic welfare state in Sweden, the social liberal welfare state
in Canada, and the liberal welfare state in the United States have
converged. It takes a qualitative approach, examining the character
of the income security and social service programs in two broad
policy domains—family policy and health care—and concludes
that the welfare states in the three nations remain distinct, while
acknowledging some broadly similar trends and new developments.
INTEGRATING GLOBALIZATION INTO THE SOCIAL WORK CURRICULUM
Karen Smith Rotabi, Denise Gammonley, Dorothy N. Gamble and Marie O. Weil
The reality that social work is a global profession is explored. Authors
encourage a broadening of social work education, moving beyond the
traditional conception of “internationalized” to a “globalized” social
work curriculum. Practical teaching strategies for a globalized perspective
are presented with selected key concepts specifically applied
to social policy, community practice, human behavior in the social
environment, and sustainable development. Discussion includes
macro-scale ethical considerations in a neoliberal economic system.
GLOBALIZATION, WELFARE REFORM AND THE SOCIAL ECONOMY: DEVELOPING AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO ANALYZING SOCIAL WELFARE SYSTEMS IN THE POST-INDUSTRIAL ERA
Our understanding of the relationship between globalization and
contemporary social welfare systems is heavily influenced by three
conventional approaches to studying welfare reform: the political
economy, moral economy, and mixed economy approaches. In addition
to analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of each of these approaches,
a central aim of this article is to introduce the social economy
approach as an emergent alternative. Drawing from a growing
body of work on institutional innovation within the European third
sector, I argue that the social economy approach makes a valuable
contribution to understanding the role of welfare networks in reconfiguring
globalizations’ impact on the character and quality of social
provision so as to better reconcile social efficacy with social justice.
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Senior Editor, The Journal of Social Work Values and Ethics
Marguerite G. Rosenthal, Ph.D
Professor, School of Social Work, Salem State College, MA
Republican Women: Feminism and Conservatism from Suffrage
Through the Rise of the New Right
Catherine E. Rymph.
Reviewed by Leon Ginsberg.
Changing Lives: Delinquency Prevention as Crime Control Policy
Peter W. Greenwood.
Reviewed by Matthew T. Theriot.
Children and Youth in Adoption, Orphanages and Foster Care:
A Historical Handbook and Guide
Lori Askeland (Ed.).
Reviewed by Albert J. Ellett.
Empire of Scrounge: Inside the Urban Underground of
Dumpster Diving, Trash Picking, and Street Scavenging
Reviewed by Robert D. Leighninger, Jr.
Black, Brown, Yellow and Left: Radical Activism in Los Angeles
Reviewed by Cheryl A. Hyde.
White Slave Crusades: Race, Gender and Anti-Vice Activism, 1887-1917
Reviewed by Leslie Leighninger.
Taxes are a Woman’s Issue: Reframing the Debate
Mimi Abramovitz and Sandra Morgen
Among Empires: American Ascendancy and its Predecessors
Charles S. Maier
Global Energy Shifts: Fostering Stability in a Turbulent Age
The Citizen’s Stake: Exploring the Future of Universal Asset Policies
Will Paxton and Stuart White, with Dominic Maxwell
Pharmaceutical Reason: Knowledge and Value in Global Psychiatry Andrew Lakoff
Differences that Matter: Social Policy and the Working Poor in
the United States and Canada
A Call for Papers:
Beyond the Numbers: How the Lived Experiences of Women
Challenge the “Success” of Welfare Reform