Abstracts from Volume 35, Number 2
GLOBALIZATION, PRECARIOUS WORK, AND THE
Ernie S. Lightman, Andrew Mitchell and Dean Herd
This paper explores whether people are better off working in the precarious
employment associated with a neoliberal globalized economy.
Firstly, we show the impacts of globalization on the composition
of food bank users in Toronto, Canada. We then compare two
groups of food bank users, one with at least one household member
working, the other without. Our findings demonstrate that the life
experiences of the two groups remain depressingly similar: those
employed remained mired in poverty and continued to lead marginalized,
precarious lives. The lack of investment in education or
training characteristic of ‘work-first’ welfare reforms leads to unstable,
low-paid work for the vast majority of those leaving welfare.
FAMILY FOSTER CARE FOR ABANDONED CHILDREN
Hamido A. Megahead
The profile of Egyptian foster children has changed tremendously
since the establishment of Egyptian family foster care in 1959. This
is a result of changes in foster family practice and changes in the
profile of foster families. The changes in family foster care practice
included terminating the use of wet nurses and replacing them
with Childhood and Motherhood Care Centers and by determining
a specific age that foster children would leave the foster care system.
The changes in the foster family profile included the educational
qualifications of foster mothers, the jobs of foster mothers and foster
fathers, the motivation to be a foster family, and the number of bedrooms
in a foster family home. These changes have been made in the
hope of offering the highest quality of welfare for foster children and
their foster families and achieving the best interests for both of them.
POTENTIAL IMPACT OF EITC ADJUSTMENTS ON
FINANCIAL SELF-SUFFICIENCY AMONG LOW-INCOME
FAMILIES: A SIMULATION MODEL
Younghee Lim and Catherine Lemieux
Policies that help low-income mothers find and keep employment as
a means of obtaining self-sufficiency have been a focal point of the
welfare reform debate in the past decade. In the midst of this dialogue,
the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) has gained popularity
as one of the core work support programs for America’s low- and
moderately low-income families with children. This study compares
the estimated effects of EITC when its value deteriorated in the late
1990s with that of a simulated EITC for which the real value kept
pace with the actual cost of living on welfare caseload reductions.
Results indicate that the simulated EITC model showed a signifi-
cantly greater impact on promoting financial self-sufficiency among
low-income families. Policy and practice implications for strengthening
the purchasing power of the EITC conclude this article.
TRANSFORMING CAREGIVING: AFRICAN
AMERICAN CUSTODIAL GRANDMOTHERS AND
THE CHILD WELFARE SYSTEM
S. Yvette Murphy, Andrea G. Hunter and Deborah J. Johnson
Growing numbers of African American grandmothers are raising
grandchildren under the auspices of the child welfare system;
however, little is known about the manner in which child welfare
policies and practices impact custodial grandparenting. Based on
focus groups with African American grandmothers who are raising
grandchildren as formal kinship caregivers, this study explored
the ways in which the new formalized relationship between the
child welfare system and African American custodial grandmothers
is transforming the meanings and practices related to intergenerational
caregiving in African American families. Drawing on cultural and historical
traditions, grandmothers forge a transformative partnership with child
welfare that embodies the inherent tensions in the grandmothers’
private-public role as formal kinship caregivers. Implications of an
intergenerational approach to child welfare policy and practices
are discussed in this paper.
DOCUMENTARY PHOTOGRAPHY IN AMERICAN
SOCIAL WELFARE HISTORY: 1897-1943
This is a study of documentary photography in American social
welfare history. The study examines the emergence of photography
as a tool of social policy, and in particular, key practitioners
who shaped the perception of American social welfare. Within the
social welfare literature, this topic is largely unexamined yet invaluable
to an understanding of American social welfare. Photography
performed a highly instrumental role by providing visual
evidence as an innovative way of seeing and analyzing social
problems. This image-based approach to social welfare analysis
influenced how society viewed itself and the social environment.
The goal of this study is to understand this infl uence by exploring
the emergence of documentary photography and the practice
of documentary photography as a tool of social welfare policy.
USING SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION THEORY AS A
FOUNDATION FOR MACRO-LEVEL INTERVENTIONS
IN COMMUNITIES IMPACTED BY HIV AND
David Allen Patterson and Robert H. Keefe
Many professionals working with people living with HIV and alcohol
and other drug addictions rely heavily on micro and mezzo-level
interventions. The authors argue that although these approaches
are effective for helping people living with some social problems,
they are too narrow for working effectively with HIV-positive and
alcohol and other drug-addicted individuals. The authors use social
construction theory to analyze the social problems of HIV/AIDS and
addictions and make recommendations for macro-level interventions
that may help curtail the dual problems of HIV and addictions.
RISK AND PROTECTIVE FACTORS OF MICRONESIAN
YOUTH IN HAWAI’I: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY
Scott K. Okamoto, David T. Mayeda, Mari Ushiroda, Davis
Rehuher, Tui Lauilefue and Ophelia Ongalibang
This exploratory, qualitative study examined the risk and protective
factors of Micronesian middle and high school students in Hawai‘i.
Forty one Micronesian youth participated in nine focus groups that
explored their experiences within their schools, families, and communities.
The findings describe youths’ experiences of ecological
stress beginning with their migration to Hawai‘i, and the potential
outcomes of this stress (e.g., fighting, gangs, and drug use). Cultural
buffers, such as traditional practices and culturally specific
prevention programs, were described as aspects that prevented adverse
outcomes. Implications for prevention practice are discussed.
Working Mothers and the Welfare State: Religion and the
Politics of Work–Family Policies in Western Europe and the
United States. Kimberly J. Morgan.
Reviewed by Katherine Van Wormer.
Good Kids from Bad Neighborhoods: Successful Development
in Social Context. Delbert S. Elliott, Scott Menard, Bruce
Rankin, Amanda Elliott, William Julius Wilson and David
Reviewed by Stephanie Cosner Berzin.
Polarized America: The Dance of Ideology and Unequal Riches.
Nolan McCarty, Keith T. Poole and Howard Rosenthal.
Reviewed by Joel Blau.
Biomedicalization of Alcohol Studies: Ideological Shifts and
Institutional Challenges. Lorraine T. Midanik.
Reviewed by E. Michael Gorman.
California: America’s High Stakes Experiment. Peter Schrag.
Reviewed by Bart Grossman.
Case Study Research: Principles and Practices. John Gerring.
Reviewed by Edward Cohen.
Long Range Public Investment: The Forgotten Legacy of the
New Deal. Robert D. Leighninger.
Reviewed by James Midgley.
Social Work with Latinos: A Cultural Assets Paradigm.
Reviewed by Barbara J. Robles.
Restructuring Family Policies: Convergences and Divergences.
Jobs Aren’t Enough: Towards a New Economic Mobility for
Roberta Rehner Iverson and Annie Laurie Armstrong.
The Other Philadelphia Story: How Local Congregations
Support Quality of Life in Urban America.
Ram A. Cnaan with Stephanie C. Boddie, Charlene C. McGrew and
When Welfare Disappears: The Case for Economic Human Rights.
Kenneth J. Neubeck.
The State after Statism: New State Activities in the Age of Liberalization. Jonah D. Levy, Editor.
Contesting Communities: The Transformation of Workplace Charity. Emily Barman.
Child Soldiers: From Violence to Protection.
Health and Work Productivity: Making the Business Case for
Quality Health Care.
Ronald C. Kessler and Paul E. Stang, Editors.
Paradigm Wars: Indigenous Peoples’ Resistance to Globalization.
Jerry Mander and Victoria Tauli-Corpuz, Editors.