Abstracts from Volume 36, Number 4
DREAMS DEFERRED: DISABILITY DEFINITIONS, DATA, MODELS,
When Ed Roberts, who had polio, forged new ground
for people with disabilities by developing the first Center
for Independent Living in 1972, the stage was set for people
with disabilities and advocates to join together in a new civil
rights movement. ‘Invisible’ no more, the disability community
started what was expected to be a stratospheric leap into
community inclusion. There was substantial hope held in
the anticipated impact of the passage of the Americans with
Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1990 (P.L. 101-336, 104 statute 327).
For millions of Americans, it appeared that the ADA would
provide avenues for increased economic parity and workforce
participation. Unfortunately, almost 20 years later, people with
disabilities have not made the much anticipated strides in employment;
and attitudinal barriers continue to lock people with
disabilities into a separate and unequal subpopulation.
DIMENSIONS OF LOSS FROM MENTAL ILLNESS
Amy E. Z. Baker, Nicholas Procter, and Tony Gibbons
This review explores the nature, scope and consequences of loss
resulting from mental illness. Losses are described within four
key themes: self and identity, work and employment opportunities,
relationships, and future-oriented losses. In reflecting upon
review findings, several assumptions about loss are illuminated.
Findings are situated within the cornerstones of recent mental
health reform, specifically a recovery-oriented approach and
social inclusion. Particular attention is directed towards notions
of risk and responsibility and tensions in realizing the impact of
loss within an individualized recovery framework. Implications
and recommendations for policy and practice are highlighted.
INFLUENCES ON JOB RETENTION AMONG HOMELESS PERSONS WITH SUBSTANCE ABUSE OR PSYCHIATRIC DISABILITIES
Russell K. Schutt and Norman C. Hursh
Job retention is an important psychosocial rehabilitation goal, but
one that is not often achieved. We investigate facilitators of and
barriers to employment retention among homeless individuals
with psychiatric and substance abuse diagnoses who were re-interviewed
eight or more years after participating in a traditional
vocational rehabilitation program. Most program graduates who
maintained employment had secured social support from a variety
of sources; personal motivation was also a critical element in job
retention and compensated in some cases for an absence of social
support. Both the availability of social support contacts and personal
motivation influenced likelihood of maintaining sobriety.
Physical health problems prevented continued employment for
several individuals despite social support and desire to work, while
receipt of disability benefits seemed to reduce work motivation.
E-THERAPY AS A MEANS OF ADDRESSING BARRIERS TO SUBSTANCE USE DISORDER TREATMENTS FOR PERSONS WHO ARE DEAF
Dennis Moore, Debra Guthmann, Nikki Rogers, Susan Fraker, and Jared Embree
Persons who are deaf face a number of challenges with regard to
vulnerability for substance use disorders. Moreover, accessible
treatment for this condition can be difficult to establish and maintain.
The Deaf community may be one of the most disenfranchised
groups in America in regard to appropriate access to substance use
disorder (SUD) prevention and treatment services. This article reviews
findings related to substance use disorder and treatment for
this condition among persons who are deaf. It also reviews a promising
approach for addressing treatment needs via e-therapy, and it
highlights the challenges and concerns regarding e-therapy for this
population. E-therapy services demonstrate promise in reaching
a larger and therefore more economically viable treatment population
of deaf individuals while providing culturally appropriate
and comprehensible recovery support options. Demographic and
intermediate treatment outcome data are presented on a state-wide
program established to serve persons who are deaf in the mid-west.
CONNECTING YOUTH AND COMMUNITIES: CUSTOMIZED CAREER PLANNING FOR YOUTH WITH PSYCHIATRIC DISABILITIES
Young people with psychiatric disabilities are significantly overrepresented
in the juvenile justice system, tend to be employed sporadically
if at all, and frequently have negative connections within
and to their communities. Recent research conducted in Montana
with youth who have developmental and/or physical disabilities
demonstrates the effectiveness of using a customized career planning
model to increase linkages to resources and access to community-
based employment. Side benefits include improved self-esteem
and positive community connections. The customization model
holds promise as a way to reduce the risk factors young people with
psychiatric disabilities face and increase the resiliency factors that
can assist them to achieve healthy long-term outcomes. The author
describes the model as it has been applied in Montana, explores additional
considerations when working with youth diagnosed with psychiatric
disabilities, provides an example of the model in action, and
makes recommendations for further areas of research and inquiry.
DOES THE GI BILL SUPPORT EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT FOR VETERANS WITH DISABILITIES? IMPLICATIONS FOR CURRENT VETERANS IN RESUMING CIVILIAN LIFE
A secondary data analysis of the 2001 National Survey of Veterans
(NSV) for 2075 Gulf War-era veterans was conducted to
investigate whether the GI Bill (the Servicemen’s Readjustment
Act of 1944, most recent provisions of which have been entitled
the Montgomery GI Bill and the Post 9/11 GI Bill), considered as
a social welfare policy, demonstrated protective effects for veterans
with disabilities in terms of successful re-entry and sustained
enrollment in higher education. Regression analyses to test the
mediation effects of use of the GI Bill, use of non-Veterans’ Administration
(VA) financial aid, and use of VA health services suggested
mediation effects; however, post hoc testing did not yield
significant results. Analysis of this and an alternative multiple
mediator model using bootstrapping strategies for assessing indirect
effects suggested that total and non-labor income and social
support, not the GI Bill, mediate the effects of disability on educational
attainment among this population. Implications for social
welfare policies and programs to support this population’s access
to and success in post-secondary institutions are highlighted.
PARENTAL COGNITIVE DISABILITIES AND CHILD PROTECTION SERVICES: THE NEED FOR HUMAN CAPACITY BUILDING
Sandra T. Azar and Kristin N. Read
Theories regarding the social cognitive origins of parenting risk have
recently emerged. This work not only has implications for the nature
of interventions with parents, but also for the approaches taken by
the social service systems that work with them. This paper reviews
the evidence that there is a significant number of parents with cognitive
disabilities within child protection caseloads and outlines the
types of human capacity building and organizational development
that are needed to support the parents’ needs. Such capacity building
will not only increase the effectiveness of child protection interventions
with parents with cognitive disabilities (PCD), but will
also attend to the support and training needs of the professionals
who work with them. Capacity building for work with PCD goes
beyond the typical training provided in social work programs by
including developmentally sensitive intervention techniques and
greater linkages with systems outside of child protective services.
REACHING BEYOND THE "MORON": EUGENIC CONTROL OF SECONDARY DISABILITY GROUPS
Gerald V. O’Brien and Meghan E. Bundy
While much has been published about the American eugenics
movement, few authors have considered the relative status
of various disability populations as targets of eugenic control.
While many writers focus on persons diagnosed as feeble-minded
as the central focus of control, little has been written regarding
the status of additional disability groups. This is important
since, as described here, a central component of coming to understand
past social injustices against marginalized groups and the
contemporary relevance of such injustices is gaining an awareness
of why specific populations were accepted by control authorities
as appropriate or viable targets for control measures.
Human Rights and Social Justice in a Global Perspective: An
Introduction to International Social Work.
Susan C. Mapp.
Reviewed by Jani Nairruti.
Theory and Practice with Adolescents: An Applied Approach.
Fred R. McKenzie.
Reviewed by Nila Ricks.
Autobiography and Decolonization: Modernity, Masculinity
and the Nation State.
Reviewed by James Midgley.
Left and Right and Global Politics.
Alain Noël and Jean-Philippe Thérien.
Reviewed by Josephine Chaumba.
Men on a Mission: Valuing Youth Work in our Communities.
Reviewed by Will Rainford.
Cracks in the Pavement: Social Change and Resilience in Poor
Reviewed by James Midgley.
Social Security, the Economy and Development.
James Midgley and Kwong Leung Tang (Eds.).
Reviewed by Martin B. Tracy.
Globalization and International Social Work: Postmodern
Change and Challenge.
Malcolm Payne and Gurid Aga Askeland.
Reviewed by James Midgley.
Chinese Americans and the Politics of Race and Culture.
Sucheng Chan and Madeline Y. Hsu (Eds).
Reviewed by Julian Chun-Chung Chow.
City of Disorder: How the Quality of Life Campaign
Transformed New York Politics.
Reviewed by Stephen Pimpare.
Rightward Bound: Making America Conservative in the 1970s.
Bruce J. Schulman and Julian E. Zeliger.
Reviewed by James Midgley.
The Gender Impact of Social Security Reform.
Estelle James, Alejandra Cox Edwards and Rebecca Wong.
Reviewed by Silvia Borzutsky.