Abstracts from Volume 37, Number 1
THE PRESIDENT’S EMERGENCY PLAN FOR AIDS
RELIEF (PEPFAR): A SOCIAL WORK ETHICAL
ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Robert J. Barney, Stephan L. Buckingham, Judith M. Friedrich,
Lisa M. Johnson, Michael A. Robinson, and Bibhuti K. Sar
The President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is the
most recent international social program instituted by the U.S.
Government to combat HIV/AIDS. Since its inception in 2003, this
foreign policy initiative has dedicated $63 billion for HIV/AIDS
prevention and treatment in foreign countries. Despite PEPFAR’s
many accomplishments, it continues to promote controversial prevention
strategies. This paper analyzes these prevention strategies,
utilizing social work values as described in the NASW Code of
Ethics. Policy, practice, and research implications are discussed.
CONFRONTING OPPRESSION NOT ENHANCING
FUNCTIONING: THE ROLE OF SOCIAL WORKERS
WITHIN POSTMODERN PRACTICE
This article represents a philosophical hermeneutic endeavor to
explore the meaning of oppression as it expresses itself within
social work practices based in both modern and postmodern
thought. Practices based within the Modern Discourse, drawing
from an authority base of scientific expertise, exhibit a disconnect
between the goal of enhancing functioning and social
work values and concerns such as confronting oppression;
this disconnect must be bridged by the social worker. Practices
based within the Postmodern Discourse are founded upon the
notion of confronting oppressive narratives as their main goal;
social work values are an essential component in this process.
EXPLORING HOMEOWNER OPPOSITION TO PUBLIC
This paper examines the beliefs and attitudes of homeowners in
two receiving communities of public housing units. Opposition to
housing mobility programs is generally attributed to fear of falling
property values and increased crime rates. Given the spatial and
redistributive nature of the programs, this paper proposes and explores
space and liberty-based ideologies as causes of dormant opposition
persisting beyond relocation. Survey data were collected from
two neighborhoods where developments containing public housing
were located. Results indicate that ideologies about space and liberty
are important to understanding receiving community opposition
as well as the extent to which members of the receiving community
feel that public housing residents are part of their community.
EVALUATION OF THE HOUSE OF HEALING: AN
ALTERNATIVE TO FEMALE INCARCERATION
Sara Lichtenwalter, Maria L. Garase, and David B. Barker
The House of Healing (HOH) is a court-mandated, community based
residential program for female offenders. Women reside with
their children at the HOH, which serves as a base from which to
receive health/mental health care and substance abuse treatment
while working toward successful community reintegration. An
evaluation based on the records of 94 female offenders residing
at the HOH for various time periods between 1998 and 2006 revealed
a significant relationship between residents’ reunification
with their children and successful completion of the HOH program.
Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between
successful program completion and female offenders’ recidivism.
SOCIAL JUSTICE IMPLICATION OF THE ORGANISM
Gerald V. O’Brien
The denigration of marginalized groups is frequently supported
through the widespread employment of metaphors that present a
pejorative image of the group in question. The organism metaphor,
wherein the target group is portrayed as a threat to the integrity of the
social body, is a particularly important metaphoric theme in the advancement
of social injustice. Drawing largely from primary source
documents, this paper provides an overview of the organism metaphor
as it has been employed historically to denigrate various social
subgroups. Implications for the social work profession are discussed.
“LIKE A PRISON!”: HOMELESS WOMEN’S
NARRATIVES OF SURVIVING SHELTER
Sarah L. DeWard and Angela M. Moe
Relying on field observation and twenty qualitative interviews with
shelter residents, this article examines how the bureaucracy and
institutionalization within a homeless shelter fits various tenets of
Goffman’s (1961) “total institution,” particularly with regard to
systematic deterioration of personhood and loss of autonomy. Women’s
experiences as shelter residents are then explored via a typology
of survival strategies: submission, adaptation, and resistance.
This research contributes to existing literature on gendered poverty
by analyzing the nuanced ways in which institutionalization
affects and complicates women’s efforts to survive homelessness.
THE CHANGING NATURE OF ACCOUNTABILITY IN
Lawrence L. Martin and Kathryn Frahm
This article looks at the subject of accountability in the administration
of the human services. The history of accountability over
the last four decades is chronicled and discussed. The point is
made that during this period, funders have largely determined
the nature of accountability. Because funders have been primarily
concerned with funding, accountability has tended to be financial
in nature. The authors argue that the focus on financial accountability
had two major detrimental effects. First, programmatic
accountability was reduced to secondary importance. Second, a
wedge was driven between macro administrative practice and
micro direct practice as social work managers and administrators
became almost exclusively concerned with financial accountability
to the detriment of programmatic accountability. The authors
go on to suggest that the performance measurement movement
has united programmatic and financial accountability and has
reunited macro administrative practice and micro direct practice.
INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURES OF OPPORTUNITY
IN REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT: GENDER, RACE/ETHNICITY, AND REFUGEE NGOs
Stephanie J. Nawyn
Previous research suggests that social welfare assistance can further
subordinate already disadvantaged recipients. Refugee resettlement,
essentially a social welfare program, offers a different
perspective on how welfare assistance might exert social control.
Using data gathered from 60 in-depth interviews with people
working in resettlement and observations at refugee non-governmental
organizations (NGOs), this paper argues that refugee
NGOs provide a complex institutional opportunity structure
that has the potential to reproduce the gender and racial/ethnic
subordination embedded in refugee welfare policy while also providing
opportunities for refugees to counteract subordinating
gender and racial/ethnic relations through advocacy and cultural
activities. These findings refine the conclusions of previous
literature on the role NGOs play in incorporating refugees into
American life, and point to the importance of NGOs for structuring
opportunities for immigrants to challenge social inequality.
Inheriting the City: The Children of Immigrants Come of Age.
Philip Kasinitz, John H. Mollenkopf, Mary C. Waters
and Jennifer Holdaway.
Reviewed by Joanna Doran.
Culture and the Welfare State. Wim van Oorschot, Michael
Opielka and Birgit Pfau-Effinger (Eds.).
Reviewed by James Midgley.
God’s Heart has No Borders: How Religious Activists are
Working for Immigrant Rights.
Reviewed by Jennifer Morazes.
Health Disparities in the United States: Social Class, Race,
Ethnicity, and Health. Donald A. Barr.
Reviewed by Krista Drescher-Burke.
Adoption in the United States: A Reference for Families,
Professionals, and Students.
Martha J. Henry and Daniel Pollack.
Reviewed by Dorinda N. Noble.
Reassembling Social Security: A Survey of Pensions and
Health Care Reforms in Latin America.
Reviewed by James Midgley.
When Mothers Kill: Interviews from Prison.
Michelle Oberman and Cheryl Meyer.
Reviewed by Mary Ann Kanieski.
The Latino Threat: Constructing Immigrants, Citizens, and the
Leo R. Chavez.
Reviewed by Barbara Robles.
The Politics of Identity: Solidarity Building Among America’s
Erin E. O’Brien.
Reviewed by Robert D. Weaver.
Citizens and Paupers: Relief, Rights, and Race, from the
Freedmen’s Bureau to Workfare.
Chad Alan Goldberg.
Reviewed by James Midgley.
The Nordic Model: Scandinavia Since 1945.
Reviewed by Anupama Jacob.
Against the Wall: Poor, Young, Black and Male.
Reviewed by Paul G. Wright.