Abstracts from Volume 38, Number 1
Special Issue on Peace, Conflict, and War
Protecting Older Workers: The Failure of the Age Discrimination
in Employment Act of 1967
Jessica Z. Rothenberg and Daniel S. Gardner
A growing number of older adults are finding that retirement is no
longer affordable and they must work well into their later years.
Unfortunately, over 42 years after passage of the Age Discrimination
in Employment Act (ADEA) of 1967, age discrimination
in the workplace continues to present serious impediments to employment
in later life. Using a critical gerontology perspective, this
paper reviews the history of work-related age discrimination and
analyzes the ADEA and its limited effectiveness at protecting the
civil and economic rights of older workers. The authors discuss implications
and suggest policy alternatives that would support the
employment and enhance the economic well-being of older adults.
Attitudes, Behavior, and Social Practice
The relationship between attitudes and behavior is not symmetrical.
A literature review is used to organize a summary
of methodological and practical problems in this area.
In turn, these findings are used to comment on how sociology
and social work practice can take this into account.
Should I Stay or Should I Go? Why Applicants Leave the Extended
Welfare Application Process
Since welfare reform of 1996, the use of extended application periods
as a condition of welfare participation has become increasingly
popular. Extended application periods include mandatory work activities
and caseworker meetings for a period of time as a condition
of and prerequisite to eligibility for welfare services. While much
scholarly work has focused on welfare participants, we know comparatively
less about those who apply for services but ultimately do
not participate or receive benefits. Semi-structured interviews were
conducted with a random sample of twenty recent welfare applicants
in the state of Wisconsin who did not complete the extended welfare
application period. Beliefs about eligibility for a cash benefit, delayed
welfare checks, and learning disabilities emerged as important factors
that influence completion of extended welfare application periods.
Immigrant Children’s Well-being: The Impact of Policy Shifts
David K. Androff, Cecilia Ayón, David Becerra, Maria Gurrola, Lorraine Salas,
Judy Krysik, Karen Gerdes, and Elizabeth Segal
America is built upon a history of immigration; yet current immigration
policy and anti-immigrant sentiment negatively affect the
vulnerable population of immigrant families and children. Immigrant
children face many problems, including economic insecurity,
barriers to education, poor health outcomes, the arrest and deportation
of family members, discrimination, and trauma and harm to
their communities. These areas of immigrant children’s economic and material well-being are examined in light of restrictive and punitive
immigration policies at the federal and local level. Implications
for social policy reform, such as decriminalization, are discussed.
Analyzing the Poverty Reduction
Effectiveness of the Canadian Provinces:
Do Political Parties Matter?
Robert D. Weaver, Nazim Habibov, and Lida Fan
The implementation of the Canada Health and Social Transfer
in 1996 marked a new era for the Canadian welfare state, as
greater discretion in the area of social welfare policy and programming
was granted to the provinces. In this study, the authors
analyzed nationally representative data to determine if
the governing provincial parties, characterized by distinct ideological
and party platform positions, differed in regards to their
poverty reduction effectiveness during 1996-2005. The authors’
analysis yielded no differences between the governing provincial
parties in terms of their poverty reduction effectiveness.
The study’s implications for future research, including research
on subnational variation in social welfare policy, are discussed.
The Differentiated Impact of Bridging and
Bonding Social Capital on Economic Well-Being:
An Individual Level Perspective
Saijun Zhang, Steven. G. Anderson, and Min Zhan
Social capital refers to trust, norms, and social networks. One of the
most important features of social capital is its claimed capacity of
promoting economic well-being. Theorists have assumed that any
such effects vary according to the nature of different types of social
capital. Using longitudinal data from a nationally representative dataset,
this study investigates the differentiated effects of individual
bonding and bridging social capital on subsequent personal income
and income-to-needs ratios. The analyses demonstrate that bridging
capital, indicated by involvement in various voluntary organizations,
has small but significant effects on future economic well-being.
However, bonding capital, indicated by connections with kin
and friends as reflected through social activities, various help interactions,
and perceived emergency supports, does not show such an
impact. These findings lend support to the theoretical assumption that bridging capital is more effective than bonding capital in helping
people advance economically. The findings have useful implications
for community practice and the design of social programs.
Inabel Burns Lindsay: Social Work Pioneer
Contributor to Practice and Education
through a Socio-cultural Perspective
Annie Woodley Brown, Ruby Morton Gourdine, and Sandra Edmonds Crewe
Dr. Inabel Burns Lindsay (1900-1983), founding dean of the
Howard University School of Social Work, was an early proponent
for the consideration of race and culture in social work education
and practice with racial and ethnic minorities. Using primary and
secondary data sources, the authors trace the evolution of Dr. Lindsay’s
thinking on the role of race, class, gender and ethnicity in
the helping process and finally her development of a socio-cultural
perspective. Particular attention is given to her persistent efforts
to disseminate this information and incorporate it into the curriculum
of the Howard University School of Social Work decades
before the ideas were embraced by the profession as a whole. As
a pioneer in the struggle for social justice, Dr. Lindsay’s philosophy
on social work education and practice with racial and ethnic
minorities informs contemporary social work practice approaches.
Surviving the Early Years of the Personal Responsibility
and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act
A system that increasingly stigmatized its recipients only became
more stigmatizing with the enactment in 1996 of the Personal Responsibility
and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA)
program. This program has been so successful in deterring cashneedy
people from applying for assistance that the decline in
participation from the start of the program continues—even in
times of economic downturn. The study reported here follows 150
impoverished families during the first three years of PRWORA,
when the economy was booming. The data were derived from the
Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project of 1996-2001.
Through this secondary analysis a construct was developed that
measured the men’s identity as fathers. In keeping with PRWORA’s
use of the labor market as the source for economic well-being,
the research studied the relationship between the construct for
the fathers’ identity and the fathers’ long-term employment, and
found the construct to positively affect the fathers’ employment.
The Uses of Pessimism: A Review Essay
The Uses of Pessimism and the Danger of
False Hope. Roger Scruton.
Reviewed by Paul Adams.
Social Work and Social Development: Theories and Skills for
Developmental Social Work.
James Midgley & Amy Conley, Eds.
Reviewed by Margaret Lombe.
A Dream Deferred: How Social Work Lost its Way and What Can
David Stoesz, Howard Jacob Karger, and Terry Carrilio.
Reviewed by Michael Reisch.
The New Jim Crow in the Age of Colorblindness.
Reviewed by Marguerite G. Rosenthal.
Myth of the Social Volcano: Perceptions of
Inequality and Distributive Injustice in Contemporary China.
Martin King Whyte.
Reviewed by Richard Levy.
Contesting Development: Critical
Struggles for Social Change. Philip McMichael, Ed.
Reviewed by Andrew Gibbs.
Economic Sociology: A Systematic Inquiry.
Alejandro Portes. Reviewed by Eric Cheney.