This lecture focuses on returning to the origins of trigonometrically accurate surveys of India to establish time and space integration in geospatial analyses of India. It also refers to some of Geddes' geographical work on India. The lecture features the long-forgotten Atlas of South India by Aaron Arrowsmith, the document that triggered the mapping of India using modern methods throughout the 19th and 20th centuries.
This lecture was made possible by a 2009-2010 Digital Innovation Fellowship from the American Council of Learned Societies, for the project entitled "Reading Aaron Arrowsmith's Atlas of South India".
Raja Todar Mal was a Hindu prince who organized the Mughal Emperor Akbar's land revenue system, which system was also carried over into the British colonial era. Land taxes were levied according to the productivity of land, which in turn had to be surveyed in order to evaluate productivity. Raja Todar Mal was deemed a "Navaratna" in Akbar's court – one of its "Nine Jewels".