At the Michigan Geological Repository for Research and Education we share news about upcoming workshops, rock cores recently received, education and research activities, and student and faculty achievements. Please let us know if you would like further information about any of these announcements.
November 2, 2023 Core Workshop will be held at mgrre
We are excited to announce that our fall workshop will be a core workshop at MGRRE. The topic is “Focus and new Approaches to Michigan Carbonate Reservoirs.” Several industry members will share their knowledge and experiences in the Traverse, Trenton, and Niagaran formations. The home team of Autumn Haagsma and Bill Harrison will talk about some geological and data aspects of carbonate formations. And our State Geologist, Adam Wygant, will bring us up to speed on developments in Michigan. You can see the full workshop announcement by CLICKING HERE. Because of space limitations here at MGRRE, we can register only 70 people—sorry. Please register early to make sure you get a seat. We hope to see you here!
MGRRE WELCOMES NEW CLASSES THIS SEPTEMBER
Dr. Peter Voice and his clastic sedimentology class examined cores at MGRRE on September 6.
Dr. Steve Kaczmarek’s sedimentology and stratigraphy class members sampled cores at MGRRE on September 7.
MGS/MGRRE welcomed visitors from Carbon Solutions on September 7.
JUly 2023 drs. voice and zambito welcome undergraduate student researchers to mgrre
Through a Keck Foundation grant, Dr. Jay Zambito, Professor of Geology, Beloit College and Dr. Peter Voice, Faculty Teaching Specialist, Western Michigan University, welcomed nine undergraduate students from across the United States to MGRRE. They examined and sampled cores from the Traverse-Ellsworth interval. After their week here, the group traveled to the Beloit Paleo Lab, where they ran analyses on those samples, including magnetic susceptibility, XRF elemental data, carbon isotopes from organic matter, and SEM. Most of the students will continue to work on their projects through the academic year and will present their work at the NC-GSA meeting in April 2024.
Dr. Voice shows the class how to examine cores
Dr. Zambito helping with core sampling
Dr. Voice talks with students about cores.
"Mama, I found a brachiopod!" Although he’s only 10 years old, Conner is identifying fossils here at MGRRE. By matching photos of fossils to specimens themselves, he has sorted boxes of fossils. It’s possible he inherited some skills from his geologist Mom. Good work, Conner!
April-May 2023 Conferences and Workshops
April 25-27 Autumn Haagsma Co-Chairs National CCUS Conference in Houston
Autumn Haagsma, MGRRE’s Director, delivered the opening comments as she co-chairs a national CCUS conference in Houston.
Autumn Haagsma, MGRRE’s Director, co-chaired a national Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) conference in Houston. More than 1400 participants met to share ideas about climate change, carbon storage, and moving the world toward a carbon-neutral and sustainable energy future.
Autumn helped create a CCUS committee and launch the first American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) supported CCUS conference in 2021. Since that time, the CCUS conference has tripled in size, gained support from multiple leading organizations including the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) and Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE). CCUS 2023 has gathered leading technical experts to demonstrate the ongoing need for petroleum geoscientists and engineers in the CCUS arena.
In her 2023 program opening remarks, she said: “Both the subsurface technical knowledge and related data sets developed by the petroleum industry are major inputs required for the world to successfully move towards a carbon-neutral and sustainable energy future."
The conference included 130 oral presentations and 54 poster presentations. More details about the conference can be found at https://ccusevent.org/
May 3 drs. peter voice and bill harrison conduct core workshop at mgrre
As part of the annual North Central Section of the Geological Society of America (GSA), Peter Voice and Bill Harrison conducted a one-day core workshop at MGRRE. Examining cores from 18 wells, participants could lay hands on rocks from the Upper Precambrian through the entire Paleozoic, and from the Pleistocene. The oldest cores were 1.1 billion years old; the youngest were just 10,000 years old.
Those cores hold raw data about our freshwater resources, aggregate materials, hydrocarbon resources, potash, and building materials including sandstone, gypsum and limestone. They also illustrate how these materials were formed and deposited in the Michigan Basin.
Because Michigan is covered with hundreds of feet of glacial sediments, there are few outcrops where you can see the bedrock. However, you can come to MGRRE and examine these preserved resources.
APRIL 2023 MGRRE Welcomes industry members
(Left photo) Autumn Haagsma (left) reviews sandstone cores with Battelle geoscientist Beth Vanden Berg (right).
(Right photo) Bill Harrison (left) holds potash core as he and Michigan Potash & Salt Company CEO Ted Pagano (right) discuss the deposit with industry members.
We welcomed several industry members in April. Battelle geoscientist Beth Vanden Berg came to MGRRE examine and photograph sandstone cores. Beth is an old friend, having been a graduate student here. Autumn Haagsma, MGRRE Director, is also very interested in sandstone cores, so their common interest produced some fruitful discussions.
Once again, Bill Harrison, MGRRE Research Director, welcomed Ted Pagano, CEO of Michigan Potash & Salt Company, who brought several geologists to examine and discuss this large deposit of an essential fertilizer ingredient. Having the cores preserved here proved invaluable because they yielded the raw data to show that this is a world-class deposit of potash.
April 2023 WMU classes examine cores at MGRRE
Several WMU Department of Geological and Environment Sciences classes visited MGRRE in April to examine cores and discuss how these materials were deposited and how they are used today.
Dr. Steve Kaczmarek leads graduate students through a lab exercise. From left to right, Jean Maurisset, Ashley Scott, Evan Hellner, Mohammed Al Musawi, Steve Kaczmarek, and Ariel Martin.
Dr. Heather Petcovic (far right), discusses cores with her incoming group of majors.
Dr. Petcovic’s students using hand lenses to examine core (left); and student taking notes about a core (right)
Dr. Peter Voice with his class (left); a student examines core (right)
april 5, 2023 pink evaporite in core
Bill Harrison (above left) and Autumn Haagsma (above right) examine a core with pink salt that fills fractures in a core from a brine disposal well. Dr. Rachelle Kernen, Research Fellow with the University of Adelaide (center above), who studies evaporites, was very interested in the core. This calcareous shale in the Silurian Salina C shale has unusual large open fractures that were subsequently filled with this pink salt. In an ongoing study, we will interpret the history and mechanism of how this salt infilling occurred.
MARCH 24 and 25 CMU and MSU classes visit mgrre
Rachel Agardy and her sedimentation class from CMU visited MGRRE on March 24 to examine and describe one carbonate and one siliciclastic core. The formations represented in the siliciclastic core also outcrop at Grand Ledge. However, because of the destructive nature of weathering, some softer formations like shales are poorly preserved at the surface at Grand Ledge. The students could see all the formations in good preservation here in the cored samples.
Bill Harrison and Rachel Agardy (center) discuss cores with CMU students
On March 25, Susan Breightol and her sedimentology class from MSU spent a Saturday here examining two siliciclastic cores that were drilled 1,000 feet apart near Grand Ledge. All the formations are well preserved in these cores. By examining samples from these two cores, the students will be able to create a 3D view of the formations from these two well points.
Susan Breightol (left) examines cores with her MSU students
March 23, 2023 Waste Management team visits mgrre
Fred Sawyers and his team from Waste Management visited MGRRE to review the cores they donated to us from their recent waste disposal well. Bill Harrison talked about the rock types in the well and Autumn Haagsma discussed how we will use these cores in our CCUS research. We are always grateful when industry members donate cores and data to us.
February 2023 doe specialist visits mgrre
Rose Dady visited MGRRE on February 24 to hear several Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences researchers discuss their work. Together with several Michigan legislative aids and Western’s vice presidents, they heard about unique research to positively address climate change, environmental issues, and to assess Michigan’s geological resources for energy and minerals. Rose Dady is the regional intergovernmental and external affairs specialist for the Midwest office of congressional and intergovernmental affairs of the U. S. Department of Energy.
Autumn Haagsma, Julie Schoyer, Rose Dady, and John Yellich (left to right) discuss resources
Chanho Park (left) and Dr. Mine Dogan reveal their drone
Dr. Matt Reeves speaks about his PFAS research
Our October 27, 2022 PTTC/moga Workshop held at the Grand traverse resort
The Michigan Geological Repository for Research and Education, the Michigan Geological Survey and the Michigan Oil and Gas Association jointly presented a workshop with 11 presenters and 116 participants. It was a full program where speakers addressed new techniques and practices as well as data management possibilities. After a two-year break from workshops at the Grand Traverse, it felt good to see everyone and discuss some great ideas. We are reminded again of how generously this community shares ideas and experiences.
Participants at the Workshop
August 2022 | MGRRE welcomes visit by Dr. Sultan and Ambassador Aboul-Enein
Ambassador Aboul-Enein (left) and Dr. Harrison (right) view potash cores and poster
Dr. Harrison (left), Ambassador Aboul-Enein (center) and Dr. Sultan (right) discuss cores used for gas storage
On August 8, MGRRE welcomed a visit by WMU Professor Mohamed Sultan and Ambassador Dr. Aboul-Enein, Deputy Foreign Minister and Director of the Egyptian Diplomatic Academy. Dr. Harrison shared our approach to preserving subsurface geological materials so that we can use them in education and research. It was an honor to visit with them and we hope these discussions will foster a continued interest in mutual areas of research.
July 2022 | WMU Hydrogeology Field Course class at mgrre
This year's hydrogeology field course visited the MGRRE facility to look at some shallow well sediment cores.
Hydrogeology Class examines MGS cores at MGRRE
Students examined shallow cores drilled by the Michigan Geological Survey in Ottawa County. Those samples were taken in key areas to better determine the glacial systems.
No groundwater aquifers were shown to exist in this area.
Cores in the field.
The MGS will examine these cores to prepare a NEW surface geology map of Ottawa County, replacing the 1980's version. The new map will show greater detail in these complex glacial systems.
MARCH 2022 | our Potash research supports national food security
Russia’s war against Ukraine has limited the world’s supply of potash—a fertilizer ingredient, for which there is no substitute. Potash helps plants take up and retain moisture, and it must be applied each year to crops like soy beans and corn. Russia and Belarus had supplied 40% of all the world’s potash, and that’s unavailable now. The US imports more than 95% of its potash, which has tripled in cost in the past year. Midwest farmers are hard pressed to pay for their fertilizer, and it’s becoming harder to come by.
That’s why our research about Michigan’s potash deposit is even more important than ever. In 2008, WMU was very instrumental in re-discovering a rare potash deposit when Dr. Harrison rescued cores from several counties that contain this critical mineral. Bill Harrison sampled the cores from 2 counties, providing raw data for an independent lab whose analyses showed the deposit’s rare qualities.
Theodore Pagano, founder and CEO of Michigan Potash and Salt Company (MPSC) worked with Dr. Harrison to further unearth data about this deposit. MPSC is now nearing completion of the development phase to produce potash from this deposit for American farmers. Providing a domestic source of this critical fertilizer component will support national food security.
Dr. William Harrison now leads a team to examine potash well records and cores from 9 Michigan counties that are preserved by the Michigan Repository for Research and Education, at the Michigan Geological Survey. Through funding from the U. S. Geological Survey, they are creating a map that will show, for the first time, the detailed grade and thickness of this rare deposit.
|Photos: Top Left: Bill Harrison and students examine potash cores; Top Right: Interested business people discuss potash cores with Bill Harrison; Bottom: Michigan Potash and Salt Company discusses potash deposit.|
March 2022 | new drill cores from mdot
MDOT delivers drill hole cores to MGRRE from their statewide road and bridge construction work. They drill cores in the bedrock to make sure the rocks will provide a stable foundation. We use those cores in our education and research. And we use them to make bedrock maps for use by members of industry and government.
|Photos (left to right): MDOT delivers cores to MGRRE; Cores from the Upper Peninsula; Bill Harrison and Jen Trout inventory the new cores.|
NOV. 2021 | PTTC/MOGA WORKSHOP AT MGRRE was Sold out
With almost 80 people in attendance and 9 presentations, the workshop focused on insights gained by examining Michigan cores from the Antrim, Dundee, Niagaran reef, and Trenton/Black River formations. Speakers talked about recent field experience, current research, and new data sources at MGRRE. Our display tables were covered with cores to illustrate each presentation. We all enjoyed being with one another and having the opportunity to network. We are grateful to our generous sponsors and speakers for your continued support during challenging times.
|Photos from left to right - Nov. 2021 PTTC Speakers: Autumn Haagsma, Peter Voice, Bill Van Sickel, Collin Gray, John Fowler, William Harrison, Kevin Jensen, Dennis Schmude, Matt Rine, and Natalia Zakharova (photo courtesy of Scott Bellinger), Lunch in the warehouse at MGRRE, and John Fowler examining core.|
SEPT. 2021 | DR. HARRISON DISCUSSES CCUS ON ACCUWEATHER
AccuWeather’s Emmy Victor interviewed Dr. William B. Harrison at MGRRE. They discussed MGRRE’s research to foster carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) in Michigan. CCUS may be the best technology to significantly reduce carbon emissions from large-scale industrial production. That interview was broadcast on AccuWeather television on several occasions in September.
MGRRE Director William Harrison spoke to AccuWeather's Emmy Victor about a process to extract carbon dioxide from industrial sources for secure storage thousands of feet beneath the surface in porous rock.
Nov. 2019 | Dark data brought into the light by MGRRE team
Working in the snow, a team of MGRRE workers and a dedicated industry professional brought some very dark data into the light. They removed 67 whole cores from a crawlspace under a building, where they had been stored for several decades. They are now safely at MGRRE where they will be used in education and research. Read more.
|Cores stored away in a crawlspace awaiting recovery (left). Cores now archived at MGRRE (right).|
Oct. 9, 2019 | senator Gary Peters toured MGRRE
Sen. Gary Peters toured MGRRE, met with Western’s President Montgomery, and attended a PFAS roundtable organized by Terri Goss Kinzy, Vice President for Research and Innovation and Jeffrey Breneman, Vice President for Government Relations.
|(Left to right) Terri Goss Kinzy, Vice President for Research and Innovation, Senator Gary Peters, Jeffrey Breneman, Vice President for Government Relations, William Harrison, MGRRE Director, Edward Montgomery, WMU President.|
Aug. 2019 | MGRRE/MGS research team at work in the Upper Peninsula
MGRRE/MGS researchers conducted field work in the Upper Peninsula in August. They collected rock samples and scanned paper well data. They will use these materials in critical mineral research, student education, and K-12 Outreach in the Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences.
June 2019 | Searching for critical minerals in Michigan
At the Michigan Geological Survey (MGS) and the Michigan Geological Repository for Research and Education (MGRRE), we are leaving no stone unturned in our search for minerals you may never have heard of, like sylvite, cesium, and manganese. Why?
Because America depends on resources like these, defined by the Department of the Interior as the 35 “critical minerals and rare earth elements.” But we are not producing enough of them. In fact, we are not producing any of some of the “rare earth elements.” We import 90% or more of these minerals and elements—mostly from China.
And America’s dependence on foreign sources has increased dramatically. In the 1990’s, America was the world’s top minerals producer and exporter. Now we are the world’s top importer, making us increasingly vulnerable to supply shortages and price volatility.
Our newest research grant, from the U S Geological Survey, focuses on finding these minerals in Michigan. Dr. William Harrison, MGRRE Director, is leading a research team comprised of John A. Yellich, director of the Michigan Geological Survey; Dr. Peter J. Voice, research scientist and geologist; Dr. Joyashish Thakurta, economic geologist; Jennifer L. Trout, data manager; and several graduate and undergraduate students.
In a new NPR interview, Stateside discusses Michigan's role in mining these raw materials with Drs. William Harrison and Peter Voice. The interview begins at 18:40 or scroll down the NPR page for a shorter clip.
APRIL 24, 2019 | EARTH DAY
On April 24, MGRRE celebrated Earth Day with K-6th grade students in Lansing. Dr. Peter Voice brought mastodon and mammoth vertebrae and teeth to show the students. We shared resources from the Michigan Basin Geological Society, Michigan Geological Survey, the Department of Natural Resources, and the Department of Environment, Great Lakes, & Energy. We all showed examples of rocks and minerals, gave away samples including halite (generously donated by Detroit Salt), feldspar, coal, specular hematite, taconite pellets, native copper flakes, pieces of agate, and Petoskey stones. We demonstrated porosity and permeability with cores and bicycle pumps. Many students said our booth was their favorite. One student exclaimed, “I’ve been waiting for this all day!” and another said, “this is the start of my rock collection". We hope we inspired a few to pursue earth science.
PTTC/MOGA WORKSHOP WAS HELD ON APRIL 18, 2019
MGRRE/MGS and the Michigan Oil and Gas Association presented a Petroleum Technology Transfer Council Workshop titled, "Field Redevelopment Opportunities" at the Grand Traverse Resort near Traverse City in partnership with MOGA. Eleven speakers gave presentations and 185 people attended.
Jan. 2019 | An updated bibliography of Michigan geology
Dr. Peter Voice has just published an updated bibliography of Michigan Geology. This compilation of more than 7,700 references documents 200 years of geological research by members of industry, professional associations and universities. The Bibliography is sorted into four general categories—Precambrian, Basin, Quaternary, and Other. This updated version also includes a short section on Michigan stratigraphic nomenclature, as well as a brief discussion of historical trends in frequency of Michigan geological publications.
You can download this free publication at wmich.edu/geologysurvey/research/publications.
We welcome your comments.
Nov. 2018 | USGS Website highlights MGRRE's preservation work
Dr. William Harrison and his team completed a USGS NGGDPP project to preserve and inventory cores and cuttings from our two major freshwater aquifers, aggregate materials, and other natural deposits. The USGS Website now shows our proposal for this project as the sample preservation proposal. Our potash core work is also shown as a preservation success story with an article about our work to preserve this world class source of a critical mineral.
Oct. 2018 | Wayne County bedrock map updated and natural resources and risks assessed
Using new sources of data and cores obtained largely from highway projects and other infrastructure development, Drs. William Harrison and Peter Voice with research colleagues Katharine Rose and Jennifer Trout reassessed the natural resources and geologic risks of Wayne County. They also revised the outdated county bedrock map through funding by the USGS STATEMAP program.
Their open-file report and revised map, showing the regional distribution of formations and resources provides insights into natural resources and structural characteristics of shallow geologic formations that are essential for future economic development and infrastructure improvements.
APRil 25, 2018 | geological Society of America publishes Michigan Basin research
The Geological Society of America requested a compilation of research carried out using MGRRE’s extensive geological collections. Bill Harrison, Dave Barnes, and Mike Grammer soliciting and co-authoring “Paleozoic Stratigraphy and Resources of the Michigan Basin” Special Paper 531. The publication describes the geologic processes and distribution of natural resources in the Basin. Published in April 2018, all but two of the 15 chapters of the Paper document research carried out at MGRRE by Bill, Dave, Mike, Peter Voice and their students.
Sept. 29, 2016 | Michigan Geological Survey funding announcement
Survey director John Yellich, WMU president John Dunn and key decision makers from Michigan's political ranks gathered together to formally announce the funding of the Michigan Geological Survey. This landmark accomplishment was celebrated by many faculty, students and staff members from the WMU Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences and the Michigan Geological Repository for Research and Education, along with members of the Geosciences Advisory Council and community and industry partners.
Related articles, interviews, photos and videos
Michigan Geological Survey at WMU gets grant to survey state's subsurface
Sept. 29, 2016 | MLive
WMU-Michigan Geological Survey Accepts $500K
Sept. 29, 2016 | WIN 98.5
WMU unveils $500K investment in Michigan Geological Survey
Sept. 29, 2016 | WWMT.com
WMU Gets $500,000 Grant To Map State Resources
Sept. 29, 2016 | WMUK 102.1
Aug. 8, 2016 | National Science Foundation award
Drs. Stephen Kaczmarek and Andrew Caruthers have received an award from the National Science Foundation to acquire a handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometer which will be used to obtain geochemical data from cores archived at MGRRE. Acquisition of this new handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometer is necessary in order to provide insight into the evolution of the Michigan Basin, which, in turn, will foster a better understanding of its geological systems and resources. Newly obtained data from these research endeavors will be used in joint academic-industry research partnerships regarding hydrocarbon reservoirs and other earth resources. Any insights gained into Michigan's geologic history will be shared with the K-12 community through MGRRE's Corekids outreach program.
June 22, 2016 | Michigan Geological Survey receives state funding
The MGS was awarded $500,000 of state funding to conduct geologic mapping to protect and develop Michigan’s natural resources. This award is a testament to the vision and hard work of the staff at the MGS and the Michigan Geological Repository for Research and Education. Special thanks to MGS Director John Yellich, Department Chair Mohamed Sultan, President John Dunn, Vice President for Government Affairs and University Relations Greg Rosine, Assistant Vice President for Government Affairs Katie John, Provost and Vice President for Academic Affairs Timothy Greene, Interim Dean of CAS Dean Hearit, Vice President for Research Dan Litynski and the Geosciences Advisory Council, without whose support this milestone could not have been achieved. Read more.
May 12, 2016 | New potash facility to open near Evart,MI
Dr. William Harrison III, MGRRE director and professor emeritus of geosciences at Western Michigan University, was recently interviewed by the Cadillac News about plans for a new chemical extraction facility near Evart, MI. Among the benefits, Harrison states, is the activation of a local potash source for Midwest farmers; the biggest current suppliers are Canada and Russia. In addition, the creation of such a facility would present hundreds of direct and indirect employment opportunities which would, in turn, provide a boost to the local businesses in the Evart area.
March 22, 2016 | Bibliography of Michigan geology
Dr. Peter Voice, Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences instructor and CoreKids director, has compiled a bibliography of Michigan geology listing more than 6,000 documents from all known Michigan sources, including industry, professional associations and universities. Spanning the last 195 years, this list represents published and unpublished documents about Michigan geology. The Michigan Geological Repository for Research and Education and the Michigan Geological Survey assume no publication rights; this is simply a compilation. Please contact your local library or the publication author to determine any copyright issues about duplicating the actual file/document referenced in this summary.
March 16, 2016 | MGRRE and MOGA presented workshop
As the Michigan satellite for the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council, MGRRE presented a workshop, co-sponsored by the Michigan Oil and Gas Association, on March 16, 2016, in Mt. Pleasant, Michigan. Approximately 135 members from industry, government and education attended to hear speakers discuss undiscovered oil and gas in Michigan, subsurface geological research by MGRRE faculty and students and the field experiences of industry members. Speakers included: Dr. Christopher Swezey, United Stated Geological Survey; Drs. William Harrison, Peter Voice and Andrew Caruthers, MGRRE; industry members Dean Bohjanen and John Fowler; and a panel of industry veterans, including Tim Baker, David Hall, Dave Maness, Lew Murray, Bill Quinlan, Rick Sandveit and Willian Strickler. Attendees also enjoyed poster presentations by MGRRE graduate students, Bryan Currie, Jonathan Garrett, Cameron Manche, Zaid Nadhim and Matthew Rine. A highlight of the event was the presentation of MGRRE's Lifetime Achievement Award to Core Energy President, Robert G. Mannes.
Jan. 22, 2016 | Additional racking constructed
Thanks to several generous donors from the oil and gas industry, MGRRE was able to add enough new racking in early 2016 to accommodate 150 more pallets of cores. Because we had very little archival space available last fall when we received some huge donations of core, we appealed to our donors to help us put up the new racking. They made it happen! Thank you to our donors and everyone who helped with the construction; now, we can archive and easily access these cores to use them in research and education.
Nov. 11, 2016 | New core collection
In late 2015, MGRRE was offered two large core collections that included about 30,000 feet of core. Most of these were drilled in southeastern Michigan, an area from which few subsurface samples were previously available. The newly drilled cores were donated by an engineering firm that drilled more than 230 boreholes through a seven mile long zone of shallow bedrock, including Antrim shale, the Traverse group and the Dundee limestone. These cores are in very good condition and hold raw data that can yield information for economic development and research when used by land-use planners, governmental agencies, academia, industry and developers.
2014 | Research about Michigan's Oldest Rocks
Research about Michigan's Oldest Rocks by Drs. Voice, Harrison and Thakurta, presented in 2014 to the Eastern Section, American Association of Petroleum Geologists.
Sept. 15, 2013 | MGRRE's role in rediscovering a large potash deposit
Western Michigan University’s Michigan Geological Repository for Research and Education has been receiving national attention about its work with Michigan Potash Company, the result of which has helped to rediscover a $65 billion dollar deposit here in Michigan. More information
Related articles and interviews
March 16, 2018 | Detroit Free Press
April 17, 2017 | USGS
Sept. 11, 2013 | WKZO
WMU Research Facility Assists in Rediscovery of Rare Mineral Deposit
Sept. 10, 2013 | WMU News
Rediscovery of Rare Mineral Deposit by WMU Geologists and Private Company Could Boost Michigan Economy
Sept. 10, 2013 | MLive